In the product line YaMZ many power units. One of them is YaMZ-236. They are staffed with a huge number of very different construction and road machinery. This engine is installed on MAZs, "Ural", diesel generators, as well as some models of buses. YaMZ-236 is a development of 55 years ago, but today there is practically no alternative, as well as its peers in terms of characteristics. Naturally, reliable operation of the engine requires regular maintenance. Let's consider features of this motor and we will find out, how adjustment of valves YMZ-236 is carried out.
Probably the only enterprise in Russia,which today can produce competitive diesel power units for trucks, as well as for construction equipment - is the Yaroslavl Motor Plant.
Any engine from the line representsbrutality, reliability, unpretentiousness in service and simplicity. And most often these motors show excellent opportunities for integration into the technology of the new century.
In the 50s, the Yaroslavl plant receiveda special order from the state to develop and further launch of the production of powerful diesel power units, which were supposed to replace the already outdated YaAZ for that period. These engines were to become not only more powerful, but also more economical than the YaAZ. In the USSR, they wanted to get a universal diesel internal combustion engine, which could be installed on a wide variety of cars.
Engineers worked under the well-known talented designer Chernyshev G.D. Under his sensitive leadership, not only236th motor, but also other mechanisms from this family. So the engine was born, which to this day there are no equal. It is installed on the "Ural". The car from this very much won in the technical characteristics. It is also the best motor for tractor and construction machinery.
Now JSC "Avtodizel" still produces this unit, but also collects its successor - this YaMZ-530.
Sales of engines do not fall, although now they are not supplied to Ukraine. But production is growing steadily.
The engine has six cylinders thatare arranged in two rows at right angles. Such a V-shaped arrangement is used to reduce the dimensions of the unit and its weight. This is also done to reduce the weight of the car as a whole. One of the main differences between these motors from all others is the rational placement of each unit. All this is perfectly combined with the high simplicity of the design. There is good accessibility to each node for maintenance or repair. Motor parts require regular maintenance. In particular, the adjustment of the YaMZ-236 valves must be carried out every 40 thousand kilometers. All those elements that require regular service are in the front of the engine, as well as between the cylinders.
On the front part there is a fuelfilter, compressor for the brake system and an electric generator. These elements are attached to the top cover of the unit. Both the compressor and the generator use a belt as a drive. Left on the front of the unit are oil filters - coarse and fine cleaning. On the right side there is a starter. The crankcase of the engine is reliably protected by a pallet. By the way, the pallet simultaneously plays the role of a container for oil. On the adjacent planes of each row of cylinders are the cylinder heads. There you can find the valves of the gas distribution system and diesel injectors. The valve mechanism is hidden under steel covers. In one of them there is a branch pipe - oil is poured through it.
Block YAMZ-236 is made of low-cokedgray cast iron. Casting is then processed using artificial aging technology. This is done in order to remove the thermal stresses and keep the exact geometry in the process of operation. The cylinder liner has thick walls. They are centered on two bores in the bottom and top of the block. The right row of combustion chambers is slightly offset from the left by 35 cm. This is necessary for placing the connecting rods.
The head of the base motor from JSC "Avtodizel"is a single cast iron casting. It is fixed to the block with special pins. The latter are made of chromium-nickel steel alloy and have been heat treated.
Gas-distributing mechanism on YaMZ-236upper valve. The camshaft is located at the bottom. The valve is activated by means of a system of pushers, rocker arms and rods. The camshaft is made by the method of forging from carbon steel 45. The pushers are also steel, made by punching technology. Valves, both inlet and outlet, are made of heat-resistant steels. Periodically, a diesel engine requires maintenance. Need to adjust the valves YaMZ-236 and some other standard operations.
This timing mechanism must have a thermal gap.
After this, the crankshaft is rotated for anotherfour turns. Then, using a feeler gauge, check the clearance. If necessary, the parameter is corrected by turning the lock nut on the rocker adjusting screw. The bolt is fixed with a screwdriver. The order of adjustment of the YaMZ-236 valves differs nothing from the same procedure on other engine models. After the process is over, it is necessary to check the condition of the gaskets and, if necessary, replace them.
Cast iron as the base material in the plantused until 2010. But later engineers and designers decided that it's time to use aluminum. Now the block and the head of the block are made of this metal, which greatly simplified the repair of YaMZ-236, the boring of the necks of combustion chambers. Also, the honing procedure became much more accurate. At the same time, the block did not lose its strength. At YaMZ-236 the price in this form is 460 thousand rubles. On the secondary market, you can buy copies for 50-200 thousand rubles. Everything depends on the state.
The motor has an impressive working volume - 11liters. Power can vary from 150 to 420 horsepower, depending on the type and availability of turbocharging. In the latest versions and versions, the parameter can be increased to 500 forces. Since the cost of fuel is constantly growing, the manufacturer has managed to reduce fuel consumption. So, if the "Ural" (car) consumed 40 liters per 100 kilometers, now the motor consumes only 25 liters. At the same truck did not lose traction characteristics.
So, we found out the features of the power unit from the Yaroslavl Motor Plant.