In science, technology and production are appliedstandardized terms and definitions relevant to the field of occupational safety. They are set by GOST 12.0.002-80. The standard is currently in effect in the 1980 edition and reissued with the No. 1 change in November 1990. Along with other terms, it gives two separate definitions: harmful and dangerous production factors. The first are factors that, as a result of the influence of which, under certain conditions, a working employee may have a disease or have a negative impact on the health of his offspring, and also reduce working capacity. Dangerous - these are factors that, under certain conditions, lead to acute poisoning, trauma, sudden and sudden deterioration of health, and sometimes death.
According to labor legislation, eachThe employer is obliged to create safe working conditions and to organize industrial control over compliance with labor protection requirements. The harmful production factors affecting working employees should be within the regulated boundaries and not exceed the established permissible values. According to the articles of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, the employer must make an assessment of the state of working conditions and organize job attestation, identify risks, develop measures to minimize them, and organize real improvements in accordance with regulatory documents. Harmful production factors list and classify GOST 12.0.003-74. They are divided into four groups: chemical, biological, physical and psychophysiological.
In accordance with the order of the Ministry of Health and Social DevelopmentRF No. 302 as of 12.04.2011 (formerly, Order No. 90 of 1996 was repealed), updated lists of harmful and dangerous factors and works were introduced, where primary and periodic medical examinations or inspections must be carried out without fail. In addition, the procedure for their holding was approved. These documents are drawn up in accordance with the articles of the current Labor Code. Periodic medical examinations and inspections are always conducted only at the expense of the employer's own resources and in accordance with the work schedules detailed for each structural unit. Also in the organization with the established periodicity the names of workers are written down and the list describing harmful production factors for each concrete employee.
Medical institution together with the servicelabor protection determines the periodicity and volume (medical specialists, as well as laboratory and functional studies) of medical periodic inspection, while taking into account the harmful factors of the work environment for this employee. After the preparation of all documents, the head of the organization (firm, company, institution, etc.) issues an order on the timing and order of the medical examination taking into account the peculiarities of each structural unit. This document is brought to the attention of all employees, and they must receive a conclusion on the basis of the results of the medical examination in a timely manner. Only in the presence of the conclusion of the commission on the validity of the worker can be admitted and start working. Otherwise (if it is necessary to exclude the influence of specific factors), the employee is suspended from work, and the personnel management service decides whether to further employ him. If the employee has violated the order and for unfair reasons did not pass the medical examination in due time, although this is his duty (art. 214 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation), he is also suspended from work and the employment contract can be terminated at the initiative of the employer.
For all applicants for work also due toPreliminary medical examinations are organized by the employer. In this case, the harmful production factors that characterize this workplace certified for labor protection, fixed in the employment contract between the employee and the employer, are necessarily taken into account. In the absence of a positive opinion of doctors on the suitability for work in these production conditions, the refusal to apply for a job is qualified.