Cultivators - agricultural mechanisms from the list of basic equipment used in agriculture.
Cultivators for soil cultivation are classified according to various characteristics. First of all, depending on how they connect to the tractor, they are divided into trailed and hinged.
Cultivators are separated and for their intended purpose.The first group includes a cultivator for continuous tillage (presowing or steam). It is used for loosening with the simultaneous destruction of weeds in the care of vapors or preparing the soil for sowing.
The next group is row cultivators.With their help, cultivate tilled crops, destroy weeds by pruning and prisypaniem earth, and in addition, spend fertilizing crops and loosening rows.
A separate group - special cultivators:forest, garden and anti-erosion. During work, they destroy almost 100% of the weeds. When loosening the soil, such machines prevent the removal of wet layers on the surface.
One should also mention universal cultivators carrying out two or more operations for cultivating the land.
Depending on the number of rows processedThe cultivator for continuous tillage concerns either single-row or multi-row cultivators. In addition, the units differ in the type of working bodies and are respectively called: plowshares (paws), milling, rotary, disk.
The general constructive scheme of cultivators consists offrom the following assembly units: frame, working bodies (disks, milling knives, paws, etc.) and their fastening system (plates, paw holders, sills, etc.), running or support wheels, depending on the type (disk hinged cultivator for continuous tillage does not have support wheels).
The circuit also includes devices andmechanisms: for transferring the machine from the transport position to the working position and vice versa, for adjusting the depth of immersion of the working elements and setting to the specified aisle, as well as the steering device.
The technological process is as follows: during the working stroke on the field, the cultivator's pointed paws loosen the surface layer to a specified depth, the weeds cut off, and a special device located at the rear aligns the furrows.
The cultivator is cultivating the land for sowingtilled, spring, vegetable crops, and also make the processing of vapors in order to preserve moisture in the soil. Leveling the surface of fields with a cultivator reduces the number of passes of other agricultural machines and ensures high productivity of subsequent operations.