Agriculture in our country today, toUnfortunately, it is in a rather severe post-crisis situation. And if crop production, though slowly, but still continues to develop, there is a serious decline in livestock production. There are many reasons for this. However, it is still possible to correct the situation. To do this, it is necessary to use new technologies in keeping and breeding animals, and also take care of the reconstruction and modernization of old agricultural complexes.
Small farms and large agricultural complexes can have very different specializations. But more often than not agricultural companies and PIs breed such types of farm animals as:
rabbits of meat and skins.
In each case,a certain technology of breeding and maintenance. All listed in the list of farm animals are not bad productivity and relative unpretentiousness in relation to feed and care.
The profitability of farms and agricultural enterprises engaged in cattle breeding depends mainly on the following factors:
The right choice of breed. Most often on farms today contain dairycows. Representatives of such breeds are able to give during the lactation period up to 5-6 thousand liters of milk. There are, of course, meat varieties of cows. Such animals with a proper organization of breeding can also be quite profitable. Their main value is a very tasty, juicy, usually "marble" (with fat thin layers) meat.
Develop a suitable diet. The main food of cows are, of course, grassand hay in the winter. However, these animals should also be fed root crops, cereals, bran and mixed fodder. Include in the diet meat-and-bone meal, yeast, various kinds of vitamin and mineral supplements.
Arrangement of a suitable barn. The shed for these animals must be carefully planned. One cow should be laid at least 6 m2 area. These agricultural animals themselves must be contained in individual stall machines. Feeders and shelves are installed along the working passageway. For milking, feeding and drinking, the use of special equipment is economically justified.
In this case, at the beginning, it is also importantpay attention to the breed. Breeding pigs, since they are characterized by precocity and fertility, with the right approach to the matter, can become a very beneficial occupation indeed. After all, these animals are distinguished not only by a quick set of weight, but also early maturity, as well as fertility. From one sow alone, you can sometimes get one bulge for up to 14 young. Cultivate these animals for about six months. During this time, the weight of piglets increases by 15-22 times.
Of course, the profitability of the pig farmis determined primarily by the correct organization of production. In this case, diseases of farm animals are excluded and their productivity is increased.
Currently, farmers grow meat,bacon and greasy pigs. The latter are unpretentious and quickly gain weight. Breeding of bacon and meat breeds allows you to get income on the sale of very high-quality expensive meat. Today in Russia about 30 breeds of pigs are bred. In any case, choose the one that is best suited to the climate of a particular locality.
When drafting a shed for theseagricultural animals, the main emphasis should be on minimizing manual labor and maintaining cleanliness. Floors in modern pigsties are usually made inclined (for draining urine and liquid feces). Next to the shed at the same time they install special equipment - septic tanks. An obligatory condition for the successful maintenance of pigs is also the arrangement of ventilation and good lighting.
The barn itself is divided into several parts: for adult animals, young animals and sows. Sometimes they also equip a room for slaughter. But more often animals, gaining sufficient weight, still hand over to slaughterhouses.
For rapid weight gain, these farm animals should receive the following feed varieties:
rough - grass and grass meal;
juicy - root crops (potatoes, fodder beet);
concentrated - cereals.
Feeding of farm animals thisgroup is organized in such a way that they receive as much as possible proteins. Therefore, the main emphasis in the diet is made for cereals. Pigs can be given oats, wheat, barley, etc. Include in the diet and carbohydrate feeds - beet cake, treacle. Their use improves the digestibility of animal grains.
Such types of farm animals asgoats and sheep, domestic farmers also enjoy great popularity. It is believed that their breeding can be quite cost-effective. The technology of keeping these animals is pasture or stall-pasture. The first technique is usually practiced in warm regions.
In cold areas, a flock of sheep and goats is most often kept by stall-pasture method. But in this case, sometimes winter pastures are practiced on pastures.
Premises intended for keeping goats andsheep, in order to avoid the occurrence of catarrhal diseases in animals in the cold season, usually warmed with straw. Feed goats and sheep from the nursery, and graze in autumn continue until the snow layer reaches 10-15 cm. When kept in the pen, hay is used as the main food. Also goats and sheep are given pre-baked brooms from the branches of deciduous trees. Of course, these animals must receive agricultural and concentrated fodder. It can be cereals, mixed fodder, bran.
Fur farming in our country, unfortunately,practically not developed. Such farm animals as dairy cows, pigs and sheep have been bred for a long time and traditionally. The content of rabbits is mainly concentrated on small farmers. Meanwhile, the cultivation of these animals can become an occupation truly beneficial. Meat of rabbits is considered unique, since it does not contain cholesterol. Hence its high cost. Rabbit breeds very quickly.
The disadvantage of keeping these animals on farmsis only some difficulty in care. Serious danger for rabbits is infectious diseases. If the technology is violated, a very large attack can occur. The main rule of content in this case is the observance of purity in cages or aviaries.
Feed rabbits the same as other farm animals. At the same time, the main emphasis is on roughage (grass, hay, brooms).
Of course, for farminganimals in the first place should be built corral, shed, cowshed or pigsty. However, farms and large agricultural enterprises usually represent whole complexes, which, among other things, may include:
water supply and sewerage systems;
Water mains are brought to the cowsheds,pigsties, etc., usually from autonomous wells along trenches at a depth below ground freezing. To distribute water, they are connected to special equipment. In most cases, the livestock farm is equipped with a primitive sewage system. When selecting septic tanks and equipping offtake systems, it is important to correctly calculate the volumes of effluent.
Veterinary points are usually organized only inlarge farms. Small farmers, if necessary, invite specialists from the nearest settlements. The quarantine isolator must necessarily be in each household. Animals are placed here not only if they suspect a contagious disease, but immediately after the purchase. The latter measure avoids the spread of a possible infection to an existing herd of sheep, goats or cows. Green plantations are used to protect the territory of the complex from winds and protect it from drifts.