The overwhelming number of products, dailyconsumed by the world population, is provided by the most important branch of agricultural production - plant growing, the foundation of which at all times was considered grains and oilseeds.
Cereals constitute the most significant part of theall volume of agricultural products produced on a global scale. They grow by 60% of the volume of all arable land, and in some states fully occupy the sown areas. This is not surprising, since such crops are the fundamental basis of the nutrition of the population of any country, a significant part of the ration of animals and the necessary raw materials, often the main one for many industries. Almost 80% of the world's grain production was taken by wheat, corn and rice. Let's talk about these plants.
Known from ancient times, the culture takesleading positions among cereals. Selective work on breeding new, more resistant varieties does not stop for an hour, due to which in different regions grown adapted to local conditions of the variety.
According to the size of crops, rice, which is the maina food product for the inhabitants of Asian countries, takes the second place in the world. This culture is the main component of many industrial areas, the waste of which replenishes the feed ration of livestock.
Its use is traditionally: food product and fodder culture. Mexican by origin, corn is a thermophilic plant, the cultivation of which is concentrated in places with a mild warm climate of temperate latitudes.
Oil plants are plants, from fruits or seeds of which fatty oils are obtained.
Seeds of oilseeds contain up to 60% fat andare the basis for obtaining vegetable oils that have invaluable nutritional or technical value. They are used as food products or raw materials for the production of finishing and lubricating materials, they are used in bakery, confectionery, canning, pharmaceutical, perfumery industry, in paint and varnish industry, etc.
Oilseeds include botanical speciesvarious families: pumpkin, olive, legume, beech, pine, euphorbia, scrofula and many others. There are a lot of them, a complete list of families of these plants consists of more than 30 names. Oils produced from them, today account for 70% of the size of all the fats consumed in the world.
Progressive ideas of replacing animal fatsplant and relative availability of these products have significantly increased the intensity of their production and sale in recent times. Developing countries, specializing in the cultivation of oilseeds, reduce the export of oil in connection with the development of their own processing capacities and sell not raw materials but finished products.
Oil plants are plants,possessing valuable tonic properties - tea, madder (coffee), malvovye (cocoa). They are grown in very limited areas - in the tropics and subtropics, ie, the places of their production are concentrated in several southern Asian countries - Malaysia, India, etc.
Despite the fact that in Russia most of theterritories is located in zones with a rather harsh climate, and cultivated areas are concentrated in temperate and continental latitudes (in the Volga, Siberia, the Caucasus, the Urals and the Far East), traditional agricultural industries, including the cultivation of oil plants, are intensively developing. Production of agricultural products in Russia covers many crop sectors, except for cultivating exotic plants that are not adapted to domestic conditions.
The three dominant species of cereals are also knownas oil-bearing crops of Russia - sunflower, soybean, rape. Their crops occupy almost 4 million hectares and they are cultivated to produce vegetable oil and flour with high protein content. Oils are used in cooking, flour - as part of the ration of animals.
Cultivation of these plants depends on the purelyterritorial factors: climatic features, composition and fertility of soil, geographical location. For example, in arid zones on dry soil maize is poorly developed, and high humidity and heavy rains prevent good wheat yields. Therefore, an important role has always been assigned to planning the volume of crops and meeting the requirements of certain plants with the climate of the region.
There are 4 stages, into which the whole process of production of grain and oil plants is divided:
• seedbed preparation;
• Provision of storage conditions and transportation to potential buyers or processors.
Next, let's talk about growing oilseeds that occupy the main areas of Russia.
The oil-bearing sunflower -universal plant. He always has a consistently high demand in the country, since most of the vegetable oils are made from sunflower. The oil is famous for its high taste qualities, it is well cleared of impurities during the production process. The scope of consumption of this product is extensive: it is in demand for food purposes, it is used in the production of paints, varnishes, fuels and lubricants, in soap making. Wastes - cake and meal - are an excellent basis for the production of feed.
Oilseeds and represents a nativeEast Asia - soybean. It is not so long ago cultivated in the country, but it is already very popular and occupies vast territories in the Far East (in the Amur Region and Khabarovsk Territory) and Chernozemye, represented by Stavropol and the Krasnodar Territory. The range of soybean cultivation is limited, as a culture of a long day, the requirements of a fairly humid and warm climate. Market analysts have argued that in the next few years soybean crops will double as a result of a huge selection work, the results of which are already today a number of zoned varieties adapted to the harsher conditions of growth.
Slight consumption of soy in foodRussia's industry compensates for the constant increase in demand for it as an exported product, readily purchased abroad. In addition, since the beginning of the century there has been a sharp increase in the consumption of animal feed on soybean basis, providing a good increase.
In a huge family called "oilseedsculture "includes rapeseed, the expansion of sown areas for which has become one of the priorities of the Russian agrarian policy.Today, rapeseeds have grown to 1 million hectares.The rapeseed oil with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids is an excellent food product.Over the border it is preferable to sunflower, which occupies a leading position in Russia , therefore the market for this product is guaranteed in the foreseeable future.
Rape is valuable as a forage and honey culture. The green mass and seeds of the plant go to feed animals, the diet of which is replenished and the waste from the production of oil - pumice and meal. The duration of rapeseed blossoming is 30 days, which makes it possible to use crops as a food base for bees.
We also note the phytosanitary action of this culture, its ability to store organic matter in the soil, significantly improving the structure.
Thus, oilseeds and cereals are the basis of the agricultural sector - plant growing.