Currently, a ship is called a military ship. Tankers, bulk carriers, dry cargo ships, passenger liners, container ships, icebreakers and other representatives of the technical fleet of civil or commercial fleets are not included in this category. But sometime, at the dawn of navigation, when mankind still filled white spaces with white vistas on the vague outlines of new islands and even continents, any sailboat was considered a ship. On board each of them were guns, and the team consisted of desperate fellows, ready for anything for the sake of profit and the romance of distant wanderings. At the same time, in these turbulent centuries, there was a division into types of ships. The list taking into account modern additions would turn out to be very long, therefore it is necessary to concentrate on sailboats. Well, maybe you can add some rowing boats.
To get on them - the share is unenviable. Such punishment in the old days awaited the criminals. And in ancient Egypt, and in Finkia, and in Hellas they already were. Over time, other types of ships appeared, but the galleys were used until the Middle Ages. The main driving force was those convicts, but they were sometimes helped by sails, straight or triangular, mounted on two or three masts. According to the modern concepts of the vessel these were not large, their displacement was only 30-70 tons, and the length rarely exceeded 30 meters, but in those distant times the size of the ships was not huge at all. The rowers sat in rows, according to historians, no more than three horizontal tiers. Armament of the galleys is represented by ballistae and nasal rams, in the later centuries these weapons were supplemented with artillery. The movement, that is, the speed of movement, was controlled by the overseers, setting the rhythm with special tambourines, and, if necessary, with a whip.
Types of sailing ships to our contemporariesLittle is known, but some of them are still familiar on regularly held parades and international regattas. In Russia the barges of "Sedov" and "Kruzenstern" are kept. These ships not only demonstrate their beauty to the whole world, but also contribute to the upbringing of young seamen who practice on them in the traditions of the Russian Navy.
So, the bark (the name of the species comes fromFlemish word "bark") is a vessel with the number of masts from three to five. All its sails are straight, except for the oblique equipment of the bison (stern mast). Barki - ships are quite large, for example, "Kruzenshtern" has a length of about 115 meters, a width of 14 m, a crew of 70 people. Since it was built in 1926, when steam engines were already widely distributed, an auxiliary power plant with a capacity of almost one and a half thousand kilowatts, loaded on two propellers of a constant pitch, is also present in its design. The speed of the ship does not seem small today, under sail the course of this bark reaches 17 knots. Appointment type, in general, common for the merchant fleet of the XIX century - the delivery of mixed cargo, mail and passengers on the sea lines.
In fact, the same barges, but with two masts,are called brigantines. All types of ships differ in their purpose and shipping qualities. Brigantines are distinguished by speed and ease. The sail rigging is mixed, the straight (at the forward mast), and the slanting on the grotto. Favorite ship of pirates of all seas. Historical sources mention brigantines with the so-called "Bermuda grotto," that is, a triangular sail stretched between the lyctros and the anterior luff, but none of the surviving species can boast of them. However, these nuances are interesting only to specialists.
As the fleet develops, some types of militaryships appeared, others disappeared, and others acquired a different meaning. An example is a frigate. This concept survived later types, such as battleships, dreadnoughts and even battleships. True modern frigate roughly corresponds to the Soviet concept of a large antisubmarine ship, but it sounds shorter and somehow more beautiful. In the original sense it means a three-masted vessel with one artillery deck for 20-30 guns. By the word "frigate" since the XVII century for a long time added an adjective "dunkirk", which meant the primary use in a separate zone of the naval theater of military operations adjacent to the Pas-de-Calais. This type differed in its speed. Then, as the radius of autonomy increased, they were called simply frigates. The displacement is the average for that time, about 800-1000 tons. The most famous Russian frigate was called "Pallada", in 1855 a glorious expedition to the shores of East Asia was conducted under the command of Admiral E. V. Putyatin.
"She passed like a caravel ..." - is sung in the famouspop song. It is harmless to study the types of sailing ships, before writing lyrics for future hits. The compliment was somewhat ambiguous. Not every girl will want to be compared with a large, heavy and heavily loaded cargo ship. In addition, the caravel nose is high, in which you can also see an undesirable hint.
However, basically this type, of course,good seaworthy properties. He is most famous for the fact that Columbus made his expedition to the shores of the New World on three caravels (Santa Maria, Pinta and Ninja). Outwardly, they can be distinguished by the mentioned elevated tanks (nasal superstructures), and also by sailing rigging. The masts are three, the fok with straight, and the rest - with Latin (oblique) sails.
Destination - long sea and transoceanic hikes.
From the word "caravel" the Russian word "ship" morphologically occurs. It gave the name to the famous French passenger airliner, very beautiful.
For fast swimming, all types of ships are created. Names of ships are not always remembered, but there are exceptions. Someone will say the word "cruiser", and then all around will think something - some "Aurora", the other "Varyag". About the clippers, the option is just one - "Cutty Sark". This vessel with a long and narrow body went down in history for several reasons, but its main and most important quality was speed. Deliver tea from China, quickly bring mail to distant colonies and perform particularly delicate assignments of the queen was the lot of clippers and their teams. And these ships did their work until the appearance of the steamers, and in some cases even later.
Moving through the old types of warships, you can notnot to remember the Great Armada, which competed with the British fleet in the XVI century. The main unit of this formidable force was the Spanish galleon. Compared to perfection with him could not have been any sailing vessel of that time. In its essence, this is an improved caravel, with a reduced superstructure of the tank (that same "snuffled nose" has practically disappeared) and an elongated body. As a result, the ancient Spanish shipbuilders achieved increased stability, reduced resistance to the waves and, as a result, increased speed. Maneuverability has also improved. Other types of warships of the XVI century looked nearer to the galleon shorter and too high (it was a defect, it's easier to get into this goal). The shape of the yut (aft superstructure) has acquired a rectangular shape, and the conditions of the crew have become more comfortable. It was on the galleons that the first latrines (latrines) appeared, hence the origin of this word.
The displacement of these "battleships of the XVI century" ranged from 500 to 2 thousand tons. They, at last, were very beautiful, they were adorned with skilful carving, and the nose was crowned by a majestic sculpture.
There are types of large ships that have become "workershorses "designed for the carriage of a wide variety of goods. Among them a special place is occupied by schooners. These are multi-mast vessels, differing in that at least two of their outfits are oblique. They are Marseilles, Stax, Bermuda or Gaffe, depending on which masts are equipped with oblique sails. At the same time, it must be taken into account that the boundary between the two-masted brammesel or marseill schooner and brigantine is very conditional. This type is known since the XVII century. He reached the greatest distribution in the US merchant fleet, in particular Wolf Larsen, the character of Jack London, with his team hunts for fur seals on the schooner. In comparison with her, other types of ships are more difficult to manage (If you believe John London, this process is available even for a single sailor). Most often schooners were two- and three-masted, but there are cases when the rigging was much more numerous. A special record was set in 1902, when a ship with seven masts was lowered onto the water (Thomas Dabrow Lawson, Quincy shipyard).
Photo of sailboats arriving to the internationalregatta from around the world, published in newspapers, magazines and on pages of sites. Such a parade is always an event, the beauty of these courts is incomparable with nothing. Barki, brigantines, corvettes, frigates, clippers, caches, yachts represent all types of ships, preserved, fortunately, to this day. This spectacle distracts from everyday life and takes away the viewer in the past centuries, full of adventure and romance of distant wanderings. A real sailor must master the art of sailing navigation, as many believe in this and in our country as well. Climbing the guys up, unfolding the sails and breathing the free wind of the sea, you can take your place in the modern control panels of dry cargo ships, tankers of bulk carriers and cruise ships. Such a sailor can safely be trusted with the destiny of the cargo and life of passengers, he will not let you down.