Virtually all people perceive betterinformation "drawn", not "listened". And even better, if this information is represented by images, rather than a series of figures and indicators. Imagine that an unfamiliar person talks about his dog. He does not describe her appearance and pedigree, does not specify the suit and age, etc. The imagination of each listener will draw his own image. And when we already imagine a handsome dog, it turns out that they told us about a lovely pug. In this situation, we will laugh, but, faced with something similar in the enterprise, will not be to laugh.
Therefore, in production, everyone is trying to maximizevisualize. One of the most important documents, especially in construction, is the schedule of work. We can safely say that the entire project without this schedule is a waste of time. Since it contains all the engineering and technical decisions taken, as well as optimized terms.
The very title of this document gives an ideaabout its importance and significance. The schedule for the production of works is a table in which all types of work, their scope and terms of implementation are displayed. In addition, the graph clearly shows the sequence of work performed, tied to specific dates (or just the duration of the various types of work - for typical projects). Most often this document also contains information about the resources necessary at each stage of construction: basic materials, equipment and personnel.
Ability to make a schedule of work -one of the most important skills of managers of different levels. The more accurately and in more detail the schedule is drawn up, the better the planned work will be carried out. Despite the fact that the "native" branch of the schedule for the production of works is considered to be construction, the leaders of all directions will not be hampered by knowledge of the principles of calendar planning.
Any work can be divided into small tasks. The simplest example is the preparation of a salad of fresh vegetables. It would seem that it is easier? But even this elementary task can be divided into a sequence of actions. First, buy all the ingredients, then wash them, cut them and mix them with the sauce. And all actions can be broken in time (there are breaks in the work), and can be done consistently, without discontinuities in time. In addition, all this can be done by one person, and maybe a whole team of cooks. So, there is a sequence of actions. It remains to calculate the execution time of each stage and determine how much and what staff is needed for this work. And the schedule of production is almost ready for us.
Irrespective of the industry, when developingschedule, you first need to select the composition of the work: break the entire process into components. And the criteria can be not only technological differences, but also the number of employees, and the necessary mechanisms and adaptations, etc.
After the separation of the entire production processon the sequence of actions, you can start calculating the timing of the work. For production and construction, there are standards and standards for calculating specific deadlines for a given amount of work. For mental work can not calculate the timing of the work on the formula. But the manager with extensive experience, who knows the information about his staff of employees, can set a time frame for solving the set task quite clearly.
Knowing the terms for each type of work, wewe can begin to determine the time needed to implement the whole process. It should be remembered that some tasks can be handled in parallel, and for certain processes, technological breaks are also needed.
Undoubtedly, personnel are the most important element of the process. The schedule of work in construction involves the determination of the number of performers, the specialization of workers and their qualifications. At this stage, we calculate the number and composition of brigades and compile a calendar plan for their employment at the site.
Next, we turn to the definition of the necessaryequipment, mechanisms and devices. In industry, there are also standards for this. And, finally, the last, but no less important, is the calculation of the materials necessary for the work.
All this information will allow to combine the schedulethe production of works with the schedule of supplies of materials and equipment. Uniformity and continuity are the two basic principles of planning. Optimization of the schedule in the direction of reducing the time may not give the desired result, because in the work will appear simple due to lack of materials (or, conversely, the construction site will be literally packed with them, and therefore a lot of time will be needed to find the right one at the moment).
Another important detail - when drawing upIt is necessary to provide for possible risks. For construction, it can be anything you like - from bad weather to stressful traffic on the roads. Taking into account the force majeure circumstances, it is necessary to slightly increase the deadlines for performing certain types of work. Most often this affects the duration of the implementation of their entire volume.
Despite this, planners should not chasefor minimizing time. After all, when the network schedule for the production of works is violated, the general contractor will have to pay a penalty to both the customer and the related contracting organizations.
A few years ago, a calendar planwas made manually. The specialists expected all the terms and the need for personnel and materials, and then visualized it using a graphic editor. For small amounts of work, this is a simple task. It's another matter if we are talking about a serious contractor organization that leads several objects at the same time.
Programmers are developing manyAuxiliary programs designed to automatically calculate and build a work schedule. A sample of a calendar plan calculated using Microsoft Office Project 2010 Professional, for example, is easily retrieved on the Internet. However, not every company will agree to spend additional funds for installing software and training personnel to work with it. In addition, each specialized program has its drawbacks. One does not take into account the possibilities of shift work, the other without writing macros does not agree with the calculation of materials, for example, and so on.
Therefore, most specialists engaged in planning, learned how to build a schedule of work in Excel.
This program has many advantages: