The project method in Russia has gained popularity withlate nineties of the last century. Before that, for almost sixty years in Soviet pedagogy, there was a taboo on the "bourgeois design method". However, the Soviet school met him in the first years of Soviet power.
Educators attracted the opportunity to educatean active independent personality, able to make decisions, set goals, plan their activities and foresee its result. The project assumes a practical social orientation and a specific socially significant product.
At present, the project activity is organically included in the new standards of primary education. However, pre-school educational institutions introduce a project method in the kindergarten.
Projects in the kindergarten are, as a rule,learning character. Preschoolers in their psychophysiological development are not yet able to create their own project from beginning to end. Therefore, the training of necessary skills is the main task of educators.
Projects in kindergarten can be creative,information, communication, role, research. Since the leading activity of preschoolers is a game, preference is given to creative and role-playing species.
Group projects in kindergarten can be the first step. But first the educator composes his pedagogical project, which includes several stages:
- setting the learning goal of the project and understanding its product;
- planning of work on preparation of pupils;
- forecasting the process of pupils' activity and expected results;
- Practical work on preparing the necessary materials.
For example, the project is a family in a kindergarten.
The product of the pedagogical project will be detaileda description of the joint activities of the teacher and pupils, which answers the following questions: What skills will pupils acquire in the course of their activities? What kind of project will be implemented (creative, informational)? What knowledge about the family should pupils have before and after its implementation? How will the interaction of children be organized in the process of activity? What will become the product of the group project of pupils? What equipment will be needed to implement it? How is it possible to involve other specialists of the DOU or parents (social partnership)?
Projects in the kindergarten are carried out by the teacher according to the planned plan.
The goal, subject and product is announced by the educator. At this stage, the teacher needs to help the children to accept the task, motivate them to do it, make the goal personally significant for each child.
For example, the purpose of the group project "Family"can be an exhibition of children's creative works about their family. The product is creative work done in various techniques. Motivation is based on the personal family experience of the child and family relationships. Children take an active part in the discussion of options for creative work and its results.
At the next stage, there is an individualizationpurpose and product of the project for each pupil. The child is involved in the planning process: what needs to be done, when, what materials are needed, who can help in the work.
Practical work on the project implementation takes the most time. It is necessary to arrange intermediate discussions of the preparation process: What did they do together? What else needs to be done? What did everyone do?
When the stage of realization of individual workscompleted, the guys are planning to complete: presentation of the product of the project. Where will the work be exhibited? How to arrange an exhibition? Who will act as a guide? etc.