The knife deserves the title of the oldestkitchen tool. Even in the 21st century high technologies, when the kitchen can not do without a mixer, blender, electric meat grinder, etc., the object with a sharpened blade does not lose its relevance.
On the shelves of stores today you can meeta lot of kinds of kitchen knives with names and photos, but the average hostess and the beginning chef they have little to say. To get lost in such a variety of models is easy. How to choose a product that fully meets the needs, and not overpay for unnecessary functions? Answers to this and many other questions in this article.
Cooks with Michelin stars claim: in the kitchen three knives are enough. And they're right ... in part. Because these three knives are different for everyone. The characteristics of the tools are determined by the preferences in the food and the ways in which it is prepared. And yet, the main types of kitchen knives with a photo are considered first.
Knife cook, or simply "chef" - like a handle forteacher, steering wheel for the driver, this is the main tool of 98% of cooks. Virtually all operations for grinding products are carried out with his direct participation. On different continents, the instrument has distinctive features due to the unique gastronomic and cultural traditions of the population.
Has received the maximum distribution in ouredges. The length of the blade does not exceed 30 centimeters. Finding the back of the handle and the shoe at the same level creates a comfortable clearance for the fingers between the cutting board and the handle. Thanks to this design, the instrument can be used for hours without feeling the heaviness or discomfort in the hand.
At the heart of production - 55-58 HRC - medium steelhardness, sharpened at an angle of 20 degrees per side. The product requires frequent straightening, while it has an enviable strength and can withstand impressive loads. The described kind of kitchen knives is universal - it will crush soft products, cope with the separation of tendons and cut the bones of medium thickness. The lateral surface will perfectly cope with crushing, the shoe will beat the meat no worse than the hammer.
German and French types of kitchen knives are selected according to the shape of the blade, photo and purpose are presented below.
"Germans" are equipped with a cutting edge with a prominent uniform bend.
"The French" have more smoothed edges, the edgeis a straight line that slightly bends to the point. The shape of the instruments determines the cutting technique, characteristic for the national cuisine of the country - swinging or linear, respectively.
The peculiarity of tools with more than a centuryhistory in a narrow specialization and a specific profile, which makes them not popular enough among a mass audience. After World War II, the knives of European production fell to the east, which the local population modified and adapted in its own way. Returning to the West, the updated models were received with interest and quickly gained popularity.
The following types of Japanese kitchen knives can be distinguished:
The "business card" of such a device -an expanded blade of rectangular shape. Often it is called "Chinese cleaver", although, as can be seen in the photo, it does not have any relation to the types of kitchen knives of this type.
With the types and purposes of kitchen knivesfigured out, it became clear that the choice of "boss" - a responsible task. The rest (specialized) tools will be used less often, they will do what they are intended for. As for the "boss", he will not practically drop out of his hands. If initially mistakes were made in the selection process, in 2-3 months she will show herself, and working with a knife will be problematic.
In order not to lose your head from the types of kitchen knives,just watch a day or two. Which method of slicing is preferable? Vertical, horizontal or swinging? The answer to the question will determine the length and shape of the blade. The curved blade is suitable for slicing by swing, for cutting, the straight blade is ideal, it is easier to stretch the movements by a straight tool with an elongated shape.
Getting acquainted with the photo types of kitchen knives and theirpurpose, it is worth paying attention to the volume of the handle. It must match the palm of the user. A thick appliance in a small hand, and vice versa, will create discomfort, deteriorate the quality and speed of cutting.
The quality of steel. Proposals of famous brands meet the price-quality ratio. The characteristics of the cut are determined by the method of sharpening, and the steel grade is determined only by the duration of preservation of the sharpness of the knife. For domestic use, there is enough "chef" of budgetary and medium-price categories, they will not quickly get stupid and provide a decent quality of grinding.
Beginner chefs studying the species and purposekitchen knives, it is recommended to purchase a European knife with a blade length of 20 centimeters. This is a universal option, easy to learn and undemanding to use. "Japanese" is better left for honing skill, they are "whimsical" in care and complex in sharpening.
Such types of kitchen knives are something in betweenvegetable and cook tools. The length of the blade is within 12-15 centimeters, the width does not exceed 3. They can perform any operations, but this will not always be convenient. Experts agree that this is not the most useful type of cutting tools. For amateur cooks, this device can serve as a spare.
Chef's cutting tools are doing greatwith the rapid shredding of large volumes of products, as for small jobs, problems may arise. Their weight and dimensions play against maneuverability. This explains the popularity of types of kitchen knives, and their purpose is indicated in the name - cleaning vegetables, grinding them, removing small contaminants. The blade of this knife is 7-12 centimeters in length. The blade can be straight and concave. Such a knife is convenient to work when cutting edible decorative figurines.
The main difference of such a device is thesharpening. The task of the tool is clear - to cut a hard bread crust without damaging the crumb. A long narrow blade will cope with even a freshly baked rich product.
Resourceful chefs use a compact knife for other similar culinary operations, for example for cutting baked duck in the oven with crispy crust.
Types and names of kitchen knives most oftenreflect the task assigned to them. The above two types of instruments at the highest level will cope with the separation of meat from bone, filing, skin removal, etc. Thanks to a flexible thin blade, they smoothly separate the meat from ridges, bones from the most inaccessible places. The blade has a shorter blade and is stronger than a loin knife.
To cut a ready-made dish with delicate, neatslices use a special kind of kitchen knives. A narrow, thin, elongated blade allows you to cut long longitudinal movements without the use of force. Beautiful slices will become a stylish presentation of any dish.
The purpose of the cleaver is the cutting of pieces of meat fromsmall and medium bones. His blade is thick and heavy, there are no high demands on his sharpness. Such a device is indispensable for owners of small farms and hunters. The point of the hatchet is made in the characteristic form of a triangle and allows you to cut larger bones.
There are several dozen knives,intended for one operation. The tool for cutting soft cheese is equipped with special holes in the blade. Reducing the area of contact of the knife with the product prevents the adhesion of the knife and allows you to get even thin slices.
To cut tomatoes, the device is used with a fine serretornoy sharpening, it easily cuts a firm skin, without deforming the flesh of the vegetable.
To this group, you can also include a knife for pizza, the cutting element of which is represented by a pointed disc.
Products with a blade of zirconia (ceramics)have gained serious popularity in recent years. Manufacturers produce them in the most purchased variations - universal, cook or vegetable. The advantage of such tools is in the high hardness and sharpness of the blade, which lasts for a record long time. The payment for this is fragility - bones and frozen products can not be cut by them. Sharpening is carried out on special equipment, at home is almost impossible. Most manufacturers point to the packaging: "to sharpen the return to the factory."
A useful attribute in the kitchen will be kitchenscissors. In the range of reinforced versions of standard scissors and analogues of garden pruners. They are indispensable when cutting a bird, removing fins of fish, etc.
Musat - a metal rod with specialnotches and a handle. Its main purpose is to edit the knives. The tool will effectively cope with the wrapped cutting edge without removing the metal from the blade.
For a new knife to serve its owner for a decade, bringing pleasure from every perfect cut, it is necessary to adhere to a number of rules.
Learn the correct technique of cutting. In the future, this will save hours of time, and also minimizes the likelihood of injury and cut.
Maintain sharpness of knives. Cutting a blunt instrument is much easier. The sharp one obeys the cook, the dumb man lives his life. Knives of the European pattern need regular editing, optimally - before each start of cooking. Sharing is appropriate when editing does not help. Following this recommendation is a guarantee of a long service life of the product. "Natives of Japan" sharpen as necessary, but without fanaticism. If the blade needs to be prevented, it is enough to refresh it a little, without complex grinding with thin and coarse abrasives.
Avoid hard surfaces. Ceramic plates, glass boards and steel countertops are the main enemies of knife sharpness. They instantly put out the equipment. A suitable basis for work - wooden and plastic boards.
Upon completion of work with the knife it is necessaryWash thoroughly, wipe dry and put into storage. A prolonged stay in the sink and dishwasher leads to premature rust formation. Keeping in a box is not the best solution. Here they become a potential source of danger. It is better to get a special stand or a magnetic tape.