Having ascended to the Russian throne, the first sovereign ofThe Romanov family - Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich - wished to perpetuate the memory of the liberation of the country from Polish intervention, and in honor of this event ordered the laying of the church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God. However, his good endeavor was to be accomplished only in the subsequent reign with his son - Alexei Mikhailovich. The reason for this was the birth of his first-born Tsarevich Dimitri.
Historical documents indicate thatin 1649 issued a decree of the Tsar Alexis Mikhailovich on the establishment of general church veneration of the image of the Virgin, which was revealed in Kazan. His consequence was the erection of a brick temple in the Yaroslavl women's monastery, in addition, the temple of the Kazan Mother of God was built and consecrated in Kolomenskoye, a village near Moscow, where the wooden royal palace was located. Its construction was completed within four years.
This brick five-domed church, decoratedtented bell tower, has reached our days almost unchanged. There is information that under the cross of its central chapter there was an inscription stating that the church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God was erected on the site of the wooden church that was here before in honor of the centenary of the capture of Kazan. This fully corresponds to the historical chronology - the capital of the Volga Tatars were conquered in 1552, respectively, the centenary of this event coincided with the period of work.
As for the wooden church that stoodbefore on this place, then, probably, we are talking about the Kazan temple, built in the thirties of the XVII century and mentioned in a number of documents. Church tradition on this occasion says that in his time here arranged his camp False Dmitry II. It was the memory of the expulsion of the impostor from Kolomna that prompted the tsar to erect a kind of monument to the events of those years.
A new church in the village of Kolomenskoye played a rolehouse church under the sovereign palace and was connected by a covered passage with the queen's quarters. This was done taking into account all the requirements of comfort and convenience. The Polish envoy, who visited Kolomenskoye in 1671, in his diary describes a series of transitions, lined with warmth and comfort by felt, which muffled the steps of those going. Their total length was fifty meters, and width - three.
It should be noted that the features attached to the temple werevery characteristic of buildings of this kind in the middle of the XVII. According to many art critics, the dignity of the temple does not consist in the originality of its architectural solution, but in bringing to perfection the previously developed forms.
When the construction was completed, the icon templeThe Kazan Mother of God in Kolomenskoye was removed with a luxury corresponding to its status. As one of the elements of the complex of the royal palace, it was decorated with rich paintings, expensive fabrics and carpets. The floor of the central part of the temple and its borders was insulated with felt, and the icons were decorated with linens and towels. Many of them were kept in carved cottages made by the best Russian masters.
Shortly before the establishment of the royal house church inKolomna was built and the temple of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God in Moscow on Red Square. His appearance is also connected with the beginning of a general church veneration of this holy image recognized as miraculous. It is known that the first wooden building was erected in 1624. The construction was carried out at the expense of Dmitry Pozharsky on this vow. Unlike many information about the life of this patriot and defender of Russia, this information is drawn from documentary sources.
It is assumed that, having existed about tenyears, this temple burned down, and in its place the construction of a new brick was unfolded. This construction was built on the means and at the behest of the pious prince Alexei Mikhailovich and was completed in 1834. Being an architectural decoration of the square, the temple eventually became an important religious center.
In the pre-revolutionary period, the life of the temple flowed peacefullyand measured. It was several times completed and updated with the money of rich donors. Spared him and the fire of 1812. A vivid event in the history of the temple was a sermon on the murder of the royal family, pronounced in it in 1918 by Patriarch Tikhon.
But in 1936 by decision of the government he wasDemolished as inappropriate to the Red Square - the center of the conduct of people's processions and celebrations. On the vacated site, the city government planned to create an assembly hall for admission to the pioneers, but they limited themselves to building a public toilet. Only in the early nineties the cathedral was rebuilt according to the drawings and sketches of the past. Like the temple of the icon of the Kazan Mother of God in Kolomenskoye, he recalls the liberation of the Russian land from the Polish invaders.
Continuing the conversation about the veneration of this saintimage, it is impossible not to recall the temple of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God in Kazan. In 1926, it was completely destroyed, and for many years its territory was used for household needs, but in November last year it was decided to recreate it in the form in which it was before.
The history of its creation is very interesting. It is associated with the acquisition in 1579 of the holy image of the Virgin. Subsequently, the decree of Ivan the Terrible in this place was laid Bogorodichny female convent, where they laid a log church - the predecessor of a large stone cathedral. It is interesting to note that many Orthodox people have settled in this Muslim city since ancient times. This is largely due to the fact that they were engaged in trade, and the Volga was an important transport artery, through which a significant number of goods were floating. Naturally, they needed a temple.
It was built in 1595. The reason for the replacement of the wooden stone structure was the frequent fires that took place in the city and caused considerable damage to it. Serious restructuring, he underwent during the reign of Empress Catherine II, when significant funds were released for its reconstruction, and in the subsequent reign, under Paul I, was completely demolished and rebuilt on the basis of an improved and more modern project.
In the post-revolutionary period, the cathedral shared the fateMost of the temple buildings: in the beginning it was nationalized and used for household needs, and then it was blown up. And now the work on its re-creation begins. Soon the Orthodox residents of Kazan will find it in its original form. Fortunately, in state funds and private collections, a significant number of photo documents and construction drawings have been preserved, with the help of which this difficult task will be accomplished.