For sure, many understand that computers,located in different points of the planet, increasing quantitatively sooner or later had to "learn" to communicate with each other and become able to work together. Means of such communication have become computer networks, which are local and global. As for local networks - these are networks that connect computers located at short distances from each other, for example, in the same building. The main purpose of global networks is to connect networks and computers, separated by huge distances - hundreds and thousands of kilometers. The largest global network on the planet is the Internet.
Even an understanding of the theoretical basisfunctioning of networks, often does not allow a person to continue a rather simple phrase: the computer network protocol is ... Below we will try to understand what the network protocols are and what they are for. At once we will notice, the computer network protocol is a basic moment which gives the chance to organize communication between computers, irrespective of distance which divides them.
The fact is that a simple connection of onecomputer to another - the step necessary to create a computer network is not enough. In order for the information to be available on the network, it is necessary that computers "understand" each other. The computer network protocol is the specially developed means by which computers "communicate" through the network in an understandable "language". In addition, the computer network protocol is a set of rules, adhering to which you can organize the transfer of data between computers.
In order to fully understand what isprotocol, digress from the computer industry. Even the person who has never encountered networks and the Internet has met devices in everyday life, the functioning of which is also based on specially developed protocols. For example, ordinary telephone communication, which is used by everyone, is based on its own protocol, which allows the devices, to determine the fact of removing the handset on the device that receives the call, to recognize the fact of disconnection, and also the number of the caller.
We hope, now it is clear why the computer world needed a single language (called a protocol), understandable to every computer in the world.
The main protocols of the Internet are TCP / IP, POP3, SMTP, FTP, HTTP, IMAP4, WAIS, Gorpher, WAP. Each of these protocols performs certain functions.
The basic protocol on the Internet is TCP / IP -The protocol created by the best minds of mankind. One of the creators of this protocol was Vinton Cerf. Today, this person is considered the "father of the Global Network". Now Vinton Cerf is working as senior vice president in the creation and development of the Internet architecture of the corporation MCI WorldCom Inc.
Work on Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP / IP) was completed in 1972 by a group of developers headed by Vinton Cerf.
Initially, TCP / IP was developed for the needs ofbut then the protocol has outgrown its purpose and has become the basic set of rules that allowed the global Internet to get rapidly developed. In addition, small networks using Internet technologies such as intranets operate under this protocol. Today, TCP / IP standards are open protocols and are constantly being improved.
It is worth noting that TCP / IP is not reallyis one protocol, in its essence - it's a whole list of protocols that work together. The protocol consists of two levels. The purpose of the upper layer protocol is TCP, which is the organization of the correct conversion of data into information packets that become, upon reaching the host, the basis for building the initial message. On the protocol of the lower level - IP, the developers assigned the responsibility to monitor the correct delivery of messages to the destination address.