What is an idyll? The answer to this question can not be unambiguous. Serenity, happy existence (or co-existence), cloudless relations, complete absence of anxiety - that's what idyll is in the general sense of the word. But along with this interpretation there are still other definitions. The meaning of the word "idyll" is used in several categories. In painting, this is a miniature painting from rural life, pastoral or bucolic. In the literature, "idyll," it's about the same - a description of the good stories from the serene life of village lovers or a married couple. At the same time, such pictures, as a rule, are of a long-term nature, can last for years and even decades, since the word "idyll" expresses the state of the human soul to which one should strive. There are also disappointments, but they are small and do not matter.
In folk art, there is always a placefor talented writers, artists and musicians. Therefore, terminology does not always matter. What is the idyll in classical literature? Idyllic sketches the writer inserts into the narrative, as a rare decoration, and these fragments do ennoble the novel, the story or even a short story.
Notable examples of idyll in the literaturefew, but characteristic. The immortal work of N. Gogol "Dead Souls" contains (the first book, the second chapter) a magnificent story on this subject. The writer turned to sentimentality and romanticism, made them the basis of the chapter on the landlord Manilov, to whom Chichikov called during his journey.
The entire estate Manilov literally riddled withidyllic foundations, but, unfortunately, this is a pseudo-idyll, the result of the landowner's enough false aspirations. And his whole life is some kind of artificial, arranged on the principle "so necessary, so accepted in high society." The landlord from time to time leaves the city, "to see people educated," even though he is not interested in anyone there. Due to its limitations, Manilov does not see and does not feel disdain from the city's "vis-a-vis", and he is happy to communicate with people who are hardly familiar, this is his own idyll.
Return of the landowner to the estate accompanies himanticipation of a meeting with the home, and most importantly, with the "magnificent English park," broken in a prominent place. The park is amazed by neglect and neglect, "English lawns" are an unevenly trimmed rough turf, several curved flower beds and dozens of miserable birches, which have not yet begun. Nevertheless, the landowner is happy, and this is because the person has an idyll, even though it is invented.
However, there is Manilov and "light in the window." His relationship with his wife, whom he calls just "Lizanka", fully correspond to idyllic norms. A mutual understanding is established on the minimum level that sometimes allows jokes, together to have lunch and even kiss for evening tea. These relations are far from ideal, but quite correspond to idyllic ones.
At one time Russian literature gravitated towarddescriptions of a measured rural life, the patriarchal existence of a village family. The idyllic existence of the old landowner Afanasii Ivanovich Tovstogub and his wife Pulcheria Ivanovna, can not be better described in Gogol's story "The Old-World Landlords." Mutual love, which nothing has overshadowed throughout life, has gradually evolved into a monotonous series of days. The only entertainment of the old man was to approach his wife with a stern look and frighten her to death with a story about a war. After that, both went to dinner. In "Old-World Landlords" an answer was given to the question of what an idyll is in relations. There is nothing to add here.
Idyll has one characteristic property: itnever goes into other forms. And when Pulcheria Ivanovna died, Afanasy Ivanovich's life also ended, even though he lived for another five years, or rather endured them, every day dreaming of leaving for another world, to meet, finally, with his beloved wife. That's what idyll is, in the true sense of the word.
The work of the Russian writer Lev NikolaevichTolstoy's "Anna Karenina" is an example of an idyllic special property. Life and death, two absolutely opposite categories, are presented to Tolstoy as an illogical example. Idyll, or "harmony," sometimes takes on rather bizarre forms. Several of the stories described by Leo Tolstoy in the novel concern loving people who are trying to unite. However, as soon as they begin to live together and before the idyll in a relationship, one step remains, everything is necessarily distorted.
Quarrels and misunderstandings, but love is stillalive, and even becomes stronger. On the proscenium, however, death is already coming. And its role, no less, is in the idyllic alignment of the situation, hopeless and tragic. Vronsky lives without interest, he will sooner or later perish in a duel or from an accident. Levin is afraid to walk with a gun, as he feels tempted to shoot himself. The main heroine Anna Karenina and at all rushes under the train. In the interpretation of Leo Tolstoy, the idyll is a drama, even if such an explanation runs counter to logic and universal values.
In Mandelshtam's poetry there is an obviousthe desire for an idyll. Another thing is that none of his poems are not peaceful until the end, and this sign determines the degree of serenity of a literary work. Only idiosyncratic lines from the poems of the poet can be considered idyllic:
"... do not despair, get on the tram, so empty, so eighth ..."
The theme is calming, the sound of coupletssoothing. This idyllic Mandelstam. The poet all his life followed the immutable rule - "do not despond". He sincerely tried to understand the reasons for the betrayal of his wife Lily Brick, but he did not understand anything. Nevertheless, even later, the poet accepted her connection with Vladimir Mayakovsky as a kind of idyll, inevitable and grandiose. Jealousy, a sense of insulted dignity faded before the greatness of the term. On that and decided. So it turns out that the idyll - it's lyrics, love and devotion.
Nevertheless, this story ended tragically,Mayakovsky committed suicide because of unrequited love. And then the interpretation of the concept of "idyll" in the spirit of Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy - "love and death" already comes to the scene. In fact, the meaning of the word "idyll" in its purest form presupposes something good, kind, and most importantly, pleasant. But, as we see, sometimes it bears the stamp of tragedy.
The most idyllic pictures are reflected in twogenres, both in literature and in the visual arts, are pastoral subjects and bucolic. True peace can be felt only in nature, among flowering meadows, a transparent lake, a mushroom forest and many others, the surrounding landscape attractions.
Bucolic - a poetic image of the life of shepherdsand the cowherd boys. Bucolic history usually begins with the rising of the sun, when cattle on the pasture are driven from the whole village. At the same time, there are no signs of civilization, the shepherd, as a rule, barefoot, a whip in his hands, a canvas bag with a loaf of bread on his shoulder. Nothing more is needed, tomatoes, cucumbers and other vegetables can be ripped from any village bed along the way. The picture of grazing is extremely simple, even primitive. But it contains the main thing - unity with nature. A herd of cows or sheep, as well as other livestock, is hatched to the pasture for a whole day, before sunset. Then the herd led by the shepherd returns to the village, and each cow goes to his house.
A long summer day passes slowly until the cattlethe shepherd tries to do something. This is where the bucolic plot begins, many elements of folk art came out of shepherd's fancies.
For example, such a symphonic instrumentThe orchestra, like a flute, has historically appeared on meadows and pastures. It all began with a pipe made of elder, carved by a shepherd and revived in his hands. Later the shepherds learned how to make a pipe, a more complex instrument that could already be called musical. Sounds that were close to the notes, although without halftones, were extracted from the pipe. The shepherds selected the simplest melodies by ear and repeated them hundreds of times until they were memorized. Thus was born musical folklore.
As the young men went to the shepherds, the pipes did not save them from loneliness. And so it was led in Russia - "where the shepherdess, there is a cowherd boy".
In those days, a village shepherdwas considered an enviable groom. And the smart mothers, who had daughters for marriage, did not lose time. The girl was laying the patties just baked by her mother in a basket and went on a journey. By noon she came to grazing and treated her chosen one. Who will not be happy with the pies and the beautiful girl? It used to be that the girl was delayed, and she and the shepherd woke up only in the evening, in the shadow of an old oak tree. And only then, in the autumn, weddings were played.
Literary works, prose, poem, ode,essay ... A whole layer of Russian culture, the idyll of a narrative genre! Pastoral can also be music, symphonies, arias and other classical works. Unlike bucolic, pastoral does not include pastoral subjects, the basis is most often rural life, measured and unhurried. Also in the pastoral genre can be depicted nature, landscapes with or without peasants, but in any case, the theme of paintings, literary works and musical masterpieces depicting people against the background of nature, fields, meadows, forests and rivers - is, in fact, there is a pastoral genre. At the same time, animals, lambs, lambs, goats must necessarily participate in the plot.
Favorite theme of artists writingpastoral paintings, is a "country picnic", which, usually, depicts representatives of high society, who went to nature with family or friends. Often next to them are your favorite hunting dogs, which significantly diversify the plot. On the grass a tablecloth, set with bottles and plates with refreshments, is spread. Thus, it becomes clear that the idyll is a genre of fine art, comprehensive and sufficiently large-scale. Like any other direction, assuming the artist has a talent.
The concept of "idyll" is something unforgettable, underimpressions from novels, operas, symphonies in this genre are adults and children, ordinary people and intellectuals. Everyone is receptive to real art, and everyone understands that any story had its beginning and its continuation, and also the end, but how this story is presented today is another matter. Idyll - this is something special, unique artistic genre.