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Intervals are ... Musical Diploma for Beginners

The word "interval" is used in severalvalues. In music, intervals are consonances consisting of two sounds. The distance between them can be different. There are simple and compound intervals, enlarged and reduced (characteristic, tritons), consonant and dissonant, as well as melodic and harmonic. This will be discussed later.

intervals are

Meaning of the word

Many researchers note that the intervals -this is some gaps, the distance between something or breaks. So, for example, it can be a certain distance between the military units or the ranks of troops. Also this word is characterized by a period of time.

In music, intervals are the ratio of heighttwo sounds. They can be taken alternately. Such intervals are called melodic. If the sounds are taken at the same time, then their names are harmonic.

intervals of monotonicity

Musical intervals

As mentioned above, the intervals areConsonance, which consist of two sounds (two degrees of fret). The distance between them can be different. From one stage to fifteen. The upper sound of the interval is called the vertex, and the lower one is called the base. There are melodic and harmonic, consonant and dissonant, simple and composite, enlarged and reduced (tritons, characteristic).

musical instrument for beginners

The interval consists of two quantities: the first - a tone, the second - staged. A tone value determines how many tones are in a particular interval. So, for example, in an example of tones, in a large second - one tone, in a small third - one and a half tones, and so on. Stepwise the same value makes it clear how many steps this or that interval covers. So, for example, in a quart - four steps, regardless of whether it is pure, enlarged or reduced. That is, there already affects the tone value. If the quarter is clean, then it should have four steps and 2.5 tones. If the quarter is reduced, then there are four steps, but there will already be two tones. Accordingly, in an enlarged quart there is the same number of steps, but three tones. We have repeatedly spoken about tone and semitone. Let us dwell in more detail on these concepts.

Tone and semitone

Tone is the distance between two neighboring sounds,consists of two halftones. Consider them exclusively on white keys. These are sounds: pre - re, la - si, remi, sol - la, fa - salt. Many teachers, explaining this topic to children, point out that if there is a black one between two white keys, then this is the tone, and if the black key is missing, then this is semitone.

In music, a semitone is the smallest distance between two neighboring sounds. These are the remaining sounds: si - do and mi - pha.

solfege intervals

Tones and semitones are not only built on whitekeys, but also in interaction with black. So, for example, si-to-sharp and mi-faz-sharp is already a tone. And here: rem-flat, before-flat, la-flat, salt sharp, f sharp-salt (and so on) are halftones.

Simple intervals

Not more than one octave. There are only eight of them. It:

  • Prima. It covers one stage and contains zero tones.
  • A second is an interval that consists of two steps. It happens big and small. In a big second one tone, in a small one - a half tone.
  • Third. Covers three steps. Just like a second, it is small and big. Small contains one and a half tones, and a large one contains two.
  • Quart. In this interval, two and a half tones and four steps. It happens only clean.
  • Quint. It covers five steps and contains three and a half tones. Just like the quarter, it's clean. However, if there are three tones and four steps in the quart, then this is an increased quartet. If there are as many tones and five steps in the quint, then this is a reduced fifth. Such intervals are also called newts.
  • Sextus consists of six steps. A large sixth contains four and a half tones. Small - four tones.
  • Septima covers seven steps. The small septum consists of five tones. The big one is about five and a half.
  • The octave consists of eight steps. It happens only clean. Contains six tones.

semitone in music

Composite intervals

The musical certificate for beginners contains information not only about simple intervals, but also about compound ones. These are intervals that are more than one octave.

  • Nona - consists of nine steps. Simply put, it's a second through an octave.
  • Decima - contains ten steps. Accordingly, this is the third after the octave.
  • Undezima - consists of eleven steps. To build it, you need to rise from a given sound to a quart through an octave.
  • Duodecim - covers twelve steps. It's a fifth after an octave.
  • Terzdetsim - contains thirteen steps. Accordingly, this is a sixth in one octave.
  • Kvartdetsima - consists of fourteen steps. To build it, you need to rise from a certain sound to the seventh through the octave.
  • Quintetzim - covers fifteen steps. This is a double octave.

tone and semitone

After quintecyme, the intervals have no names.

Inversion of intervals

Every musical instrument for beginnerscontains information not only about the intervals, but also about their treatment. And this, in fact, transferring the base (the bottom sound) by one octave upward or the top (top sound) by an octave down. In this case, the lower and upper sounds change places.

The pure prima turns into a pure octave. A small second turns into a large seventh. A large second becomes a small seventh.

second interval

The small third becomes a big sixth. The big third turns into a small sixth. The pure quarter turns into a clean fifth (and vice versa).

That is, the net changes into pure, small - in large (and vice versa), increased - in reduced (and vice versa).

Consonance and dissonance

In its sound, all harmonic intervals are of two types: consonant and dissonant.

Consonance is a consonant and ear-friendly sound. It is associated with a calm state, characterized by a lack of aspirations. Consonant intervals are divided into:

  • A very perfect consonance is a pure octave and a pure prima.
  • The perfect consonance is a fifth and a quart.
  • An imperfect consonance is a small third and a sixth, a large third and a sixth.

Dissonance is antagonistic to consonance. By ear, this is a sharper sound, uncoordinated. The sound of discord in music is widely used to convey various human feelings: anxiety, tension, excitement. Dissonances, like these excited feelings, require compulsory permission. That is, they all seek consonance. Among the discordant intervals it is worth noting: a small and a large second and a septum, newts, characteristic intervals.

Monotonicity intervals

Music has an amazing ability -own our psychological state. Everything is abstract in it. The human mind in the whole stream of sounds recognizes emotions and feelings, the embedded idea. Musical fabric is woven from tonal distances between sounds and chords. Many people have heard about such concepts as gamma, quint circle, modulation and so on. However, not everyone knows what intervals of monotony are.

Marina Korsakova-Kerin (neuropsychologist) conducted a series of experiments to identify the reaction of listeners to this or that music.

The essence of the first experiment wasthe study of the reaction of a person to different distances in all possible tonalities and frets. For another experiment, a major harmony was chosen and short and monotonous sequences were written. Monotony was necessary for the listeners to concentrate on the intuitive sense of distances in the tonal space. The second experiment used the simplest chains of chords, as well as episodes of classical and romantic music.

Thus, this topic is carefullyis taught in solfeggio lessons. Intervals have several meanings. This: the time interval, any distance, as well as a break. In music, the interval is the distance between two sounds, which can be quite different. There are simple and compound intervals, enlarged and reduced (characteristic, tritons), consonant and dissonant, as well as melodic and harmonic. Simple intervals are within one octave. The compound intervals extend beyond the octave. Consonant intervals have a pleasant sound. Dissonant sound sharply and require permission.

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