Figure: what is the prospect?

Before moving on to the question of what isperspective, the first thing worth paying attention to is the meaning of the word. It came from the Latin "perspicere", in translation - "to see clearly". This expression is used both to denote a better future for a person or situation, and to display depth in the visual arts. The principles of understanding the second option were laid by the architect Brunelleschi from Italy. Since the end of the XV century, the objective image as a result of visual distortion of magnitude and volumes, as well as shadows, is called perspective. In other words, the perspective in the figure conveys the subject image in real visual perception.

Accompanying term in fine art- "horizon". In fine arts, this concept is not something new. As always, the true horizon is the visual line of contact of the Earth (or the sea) with the sky. An important aspect for this term in the figure is the location of the horizon at eye level.

what is the prospect
A simple understanding of the outlines of objects inperspective is taught as early as preschool age: everything that is further in the figure is of a smaller size. What is the perspective, you can see visually by the example of a road or an iron track. On the roadside the roads converge to one point. With the removal of the route to the horizon columns, the lanterns along its edges become shorter, thinner, proportionally smaller in all parameters. Similarly occurs with other objects and phenomena in the everyday world. If you extend all the horizontal lines, they will converge on the horizon line.

The term "point of descent" is the place whereall the lines distant from us are parallel to the horizon. It should be noted that if you look at the cube at an angle of 90 degrees (on one of its sides), then this side will not be subject to a prospective reduction (since its entire plane is at the same distance from our eyes). If we turn the cube to us one of the faces, then the two sides will immediately be affected by a prospective reduction. In this case, the vanishing points are already two.

The object can be located on the horizon,so under or above it. A horizon is a conventional line, an object that is closer (in the foreground) is larger. Accordingly, it covers part of the horizon line.

how to draw perspective
We continue to consider this on the subjectCubic or oblong form, if the object is on the horizon, is in contact with it. As shown in the figure, we can not see the top, bottom side, as well as the two further ones. Let's note one more thing: by bringing the object closer to the foreground, you can see that the points of descent are approaching each other, making the lines of descent steeper. Accordingly, by postponing, it's the opposite. If the object is above the horizon line, the visible sides are three, the connection points of the descent are, as before, two.

What is the perspective, how to convey it in the drawing,subconsciously understand many. Having understood the concept of "perspective" in the picture, everyone can more competently transfer the location and scale of objects in space, for example, the arrangement of cabinets after repairs or windows in an extension to their own house.

Next, we will analyze how to draw a perspective incomplex objects. By the principle of the foregoing, to all protruding corners (details) the rule is applied: the object below the horizon, the points of descent are closer and the angles of descent are steeper. Another important aspect for the design of the room: the horizon for the object is one, but the points of descent for each object in the figure can be two (on one line, strictly for this composition).

perspective in drawing

So, we figured out what prospect is, butfor a complete transfer of the idea of ​​what we have seen, we will need another tool - a shadow. To do this, determine the light source, then find the lowest corners of the structure. We extend the lines of the descent of these corners to the edges of the picture and, as we move away from the construction, we decrease the intensity of the shadow. The farther the object is from the horizon and from the light source, the shade is longer.

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