Many read the play, which Maxim wroteGorky, "At the bottom." The history of its creation is very interesting. As is known, the Russian writer himself in his youth led a lanky way of life, often traveled with a knapsack behind his back. He probably spent the night in shelters for the homeless. Most likely, the idea to create a work about the whole undercover life of such people ripened in Maxim Gorky's mind for a long time. But it was realized only when the writer decided to turn to drama. This happened at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries.
The troupe of the Moscow Art Theater in 1900year went to the Crimea to put before his A. Chekhov his plays "Uncle Vanya" and "The Seagull". But not only this was the mission of the actors. As Nemirovich-Danchenko, the head of the theater, confessed, their goal was also to meet with Gorky and persuade him to write the play. They succeeded. The very history of the creation of Gorky's "At the Bottom" served as an impetus for writing other plays as well. These are such famous works as "Meshchan" and "Summer-daders". Thanks to the persuasion of artists, Maxim Gorky discovered a playwright.
All three works were written almost simultaneously. Already in 1901 the theater was given the manuscript "Meshchan". The story of Gorky's "At the bottom" was more complicated. The author for a long time could not stop even on one name. The versions "Nochlezhka", "Without the Sun", "Bottom" have been tried. But the fact that this should be a play, Gorky did not doubt. He wanted to convey the meaning of the work primarily to those people whom he portrayed as dwellers for shelters for the poor: uneducated and illiterate. However, the work was controversial: it affected almost twenty-year observation of life, mores and lexicon of "former people".
Already the "burghers" made a lot of noise. The censorship tried to extricate especially stingy places, it was necessary to make concessions. The play was first staged in St. Petersburg, where the cast of the Moscow Art Theater went on tour in March 1902. At the dress rehearsal, the hall was stuffed with bastards in civilian clothes, in front of the entrance there was a horse gendarmerie. Stanislavsky joked about this, that such training more corresponds to the general battle than rehearsals. This government excitement only heated the public's interest in the debutant playwright. Therefore, the second work was simply doomed to success.
The story of Gorky's "At the bottom" was muchshorter than the way of its progress towards the viewer. It took an entire 18 months to cover the thresholds of various permits commissions before the censorship gave the go-ahead for the production, but only on the stage of the Moscow Art Theater. According to historical sources, she did this, because she was sure of the failure of the play. However, the government lost sight of the fact that a revolutionary situation is brewing in the country. 1905 was already around the corner. The success of the play was deafening, and in this it is impossible to blame only the star cast. Under the thunder of applause Gorky was summoned to the stage fifteen times. The author was confused, he did not expect such glory. Since then, Gorky's work "At the Bottom" on the stage of the Moscow Art Theater for 60 years (until December 1962) was placed 1451 times.