The genre of fine art, the main theme of which is a living or man-made environment, became independent later than the others - plot, still life or animal studies.
The French word "paysage" ("pays" - "country", ""terrain") are close in meaning to the German "Landschaft" and the English "landscape". All of them denote the spatial environment surrounding a person in the open air. This environment can consist of elements of natural origin (relief, vegetation, ponds, air atmosphere) created or transformed by man (roads, buildings, farmland, power lines, etc.).
The word "landscape" has several meanings: it's just something that stops the person's eye outside the room, a description of nature in a literary work, an image of the environment through visual art. Almost in every work of art there are different kinds of landscapes. Photo, film, video, computer graphics and, of course, painting participate in the mapping of the surrounding world.
Every true artist has his ownview of the environment. To help understand this diversity are taken to distinguish some types of landscape. For preschoolers, high school students, students and fans of painting of any age, there is a gradation of landscape paintings, depending on the nature of the image and its nature.
There are natural, rural and urban specieslandscape in painting. Each of them has varieties and features. By nature, the landscape is historical and heroic, epic, romantic and landscape of mood.
Even in the Middle Ages, the image of nature wasschematic and planar. It was an auxiliary character of a supplement to religious, mythological or historical compositions. But since the Renaissance, pictures began to appear on which subjects or figures of people were not used to express feelings and emotions, the main characters in them were earth, forests, sky, the sea in different states.
One of the founders of the genre of "clean landscape"is considered a German engraver, draftsman and painter Albrecht Altdorfer (1480-1538). For the first time on the mythological canvases, the figures of the heroes were often discernible against the backdrop of the grandiose image of the natural environment.
In the natural landscape a special place is occupied byimage of the aquatic environment, which always attracted the attention of artists. Types of landscape related to navigation, and marinistics (marina - a picture of marine themes) were born in countries where shipbuilding was a common thing - in Holland, England, etc.
Image of celestial spaces, planets and starsalso refer to the natural landscape. Types of landscape, called the cosmic or astral, have always been a genre of fantastic or futuristic art, with the beginning of regular space flights such pictures are more realistic.
Since the time of idyllic pictures from the life of shepherds and shepherds of the Rococo era, the rural landscape has always occupied an important place in the art of painting.
Russian village painting was inherent inthe times of AG Venetsianov (1780-1847). Examples of the highest peaks in the rural landscape are among the brilliant Russian artists: II Levitan (1860-1900), AK Savrasov (1830-1897), VD Polenov (1844-1927), AA Plastov (1893-1972). The special poetry of rural life in the environment of Russian nature inspires and contemporary artists.
In the XVII century in Europe became very popular genre inpainting called "veduta" ("veduta" (ital.) - "view"). These were paintings, views of the landscape, the essence of which - topographically accurate and detailed image of urban buildings, streets and entire neighborhoods. For their writing, a pinhole camera was used, a device for obtaining an exact optical image on the plane. The best examples of this genre are a photographically accurate architectural urban landscape. The views of Venice and London of the XVIII century are presented in the paintings of A. Canaletto (1697-1768), amazing skill of J. Vermeer (1632-1675) in the painting "View of Delft".
Architectural landscape shows the value of buildingsas works of architecture, their relationship with each other and with the entire environment. A special kind of such a landscape is fantasy compositions, born of the artist's imagination. At one time the "ruins" were very popular - the views of the landscape from ancient ruins, generating thoughts about the transience of being.
One can distinguish a futuristic, fantastic landscape - the types of cities of the future, the image of which changes with the course of time depending on progress, the achievements of science and technology.
Another type of urban landscape is theThe industrial landscape, depicting the most transformed nature of nature. The main theme of such paintings is the aesthetic impression of buildings, dams, bridges, towers, roads, transport networks, factories, etc. Among the first significant works of the industrial landscape can be mentioned the painting by Claude Monet (1840-1926) "Saint-Lazare Station ".
Separate into a separate category and the park landscape. Similar in subject matter to rural or purely natural, geographically it refers to urban.
Artwork is alwaysthe creative comprehension of the world, and the landscape of a real artist is not just an image similar to reality, but an image of the surrounding natural or urban environment, the impression of it, expressed by a creative person. This comprehension very often determines the style that is characteristic of an individual person, as well as entire communities associated with one place and one time.
The historical belonging of the master toa certain style in landscape painting is noticeable especially. "Landscape with a rainbow" PP Rubens (1577-1640) - a masterpiece of the Baroque and the same picture by Konstantin Somov (1869-1939) are similar in plot. They are full of the same admiration from the outside world, but by what means are these feelings transmitted!
The work of the Impressionists had a special impacton this genre. All kinds of landscape - natural, urban, rural - with the advent of the opportunity to work in the open air have undergone drastic changes. Trying to express the momentary changes and the smallest nuances of light, using the new free pictorial technique, the Impressionists opened new horizons in the landscape genre. After the masterpieces of Claude Monet (1840-1926), Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), Alfred Sisley (1839-1999) and many other Impressionists, it became impossible to look at the world with his previous eyes, not noticing his beauty, not seeing the richness of his shades.
Nature has always been the main source of newfeelings and impressions for this artist. Our distant ancestors tried to paint the sunrise on the wall of the cave with a piece of dried clay, the views of the landscape for preschoolers today are photographs of Mars transmitted from its surface by a space self-propelled vehicle. The common is the feeling of surprise from the infinity of the world, from the joy of life.