Orchestra is a group of musicians playing onvarious tools. But it should not be confused with the ensemble. This article will tell you what kinds of orchestras are. And their compositions of musical instruments will also be sanctified.
The orchestra differs from the ensemble in that in the firstthe same instruments are combined into groups playing in unison, that is, one common melody. And in the second case, every musician is a soloist - he plays his part. "Orchestra" is a Greek word and is translated as "dance floor". It was located between the stage and the audience. There was a choir on this site. Then it became like modern orchestral pits. And over time, musicians began to settle there. And the name "orchestra" went to the collectives of performers-instrumentalists.
Types of orchestras:
The composition of instruments of different types of orchestra is strictlycertain. Symphonic consists of a group of strings, percussion and wind. String and brass bands consist of instruments corresponding to their names. Jazz can have different composition. The variety orchestra consists of wind, string, percussion, keyboards and electric musical instruments.
The choir is a large ensemble of singers. Artists should be at least 12. In most cases, the choirs perform accompanied by orchestras. The types of orchestras and choirs are different. There are several classifications. First of all, the choirs are divided into species according to their composition of votes. It can be: women's, men's, mixed, children's, as well as boys' choirs. In the manner of performance, people's and academic are distinguished.
As well as choirs are classified by the number of performers:
According to their status, the choirs are divided into: educational, professional, amateur, church.
Not all types of orchestras includestringed instruments. This group includes: violins, cellos, violas, double basses. One of the orchestras, which includes a string-bow family, is symphonic. He makes up several different groups of musical instruments. To date, there are two types of symphony orchestras: small and large. The first of them has a classical composition: 2 flutes, as many bassoons, clarinets, oboes, pipes and horns, no more than 20 string, occasionally timpani.
A large symphony orchestra can be anycomposition. It can include 60 or more string instruments, tubes, up to 5 trombones of different timbres and 5 pipes, up to 8 French horns, up to 5 flutes, as well as oboes, clarinets and bassoons. It can also include such varieties from the group of wind instruments as oboe horns, piccolo flute, counterfeit, English horn, saxophones of all types, it can include a huge number of percussion instruments.Often a large symphony orchestra includes organ, piano, harpsichord and harp.
Virtually all types of orchestras have in theircomposed of a family of wind instruments. This group includes two varieties: copper and wood. Some types of orchestras consist only of wind and percussion instruments, for example wind and military. In the first variety, the main role is played by cornets, horns of different types, tubas, baritone-euphoniums. Secondary instruments: trombones, trumpets, horns, flutes, saxophones, clarinets, oboes, bassoons. If the brass band is big, then in it, as a rule, all instruments increase in numbers. Very rarely can be added harp and keyboards.
The repertoire of brass bands includes:
Brass bands perform most often on open street platforms or accompany a procession, as they sound very powerful and bright.
Their repertoire consists mainly of worksof a national character. What is their instrumental composition? Each nation has its own. For example, the orchestra of Russian folk instruments includes: balalaikas, gusli, domra, zhaleyki, whistles, bayans, ratchets and so on.
Above, the types of orchestras have already been listed,consisting of wind and percussion instruments. There is one more variety, which includes these two groups. These are military bands. They serve to sound military rituals, solemn ceremonies, as well as to participate in concerts. Military bands are of two kinds. Some consist of percussion instruments and brass instruments. They are called homogeneous. The second type is the mixed military orchestras, they, among other things, have a group of woodwinds in their composition.