To touch on a topic called "Poetsthe golden age ", it is necessary to at least understand what stage in Russian culture is implied and why it is so called.The very designation is metaphorical, and it originated in antiquity, at the time of antiquity.It emerged as an interpretation of the special state of the gods at the time when they were in some kind of harmony.
And such mythological ideas,naturally, were captured by ancient creators. First Greek, such as Hesiod. This was the era of history, in which the god Kronos created a whole generation of golden descendants. A little later the poetic creator Virgil will use in his work just this phrase: the golden age. But this time it's about time.
And Ovid recalls this ironically, saying thatNow everything has to be paid for by gold, because life goes on in the golden age. And it so happened that the literary works of Rome later became known in honor of this noble metal.
Something similar will happen in artRussian state in the very beginning of the nineteenth century. This was a period of special protection for many sciences, painting and culture. It is worth mentioning that Herzen, constantly thinking about the peculiar development of the steps of Russian culture, about the transformations that she experienced up to the nineteenth century, with his own manner of saying that Peter answered Russia's call after a hundred years of Pushkin's genius.
And it should be noted that later becameto denote a golden period, it begins precisely from this time. At the same time, St. Petersburg finds its classic look, which the reader knows from the masterpiece of Alexander Sergeevich "Eugene Onegin".
Architect Zakharov founded the Admiralty,the Frenchman Tom de Thomon is engaged in the construction of a stock exchange, in the idea of which the form of a huge temple of ancient times is imprinted. Carl Rossi creates his own unique ensembles. This is a magnificent Alexandrian theater with a famous street that will get its name. Mikhailovsky majestic castle, the building of the famous Synod. And all this represents the architecture, which again makes one recall the ancient tradition.
And when contemplating all this splendorthere was an impression that St. Petersburg reincarnated into a kind of similarity of Ancient Rome. He became like a work of art. This is what completed the idea of the embodiment of the "window to Europe."
Against the background of these events, it is not surprising,that in one thousand eight hundred and twenty-fifth, in the first half of the nineteenth century a close friend of Alexander Sergeevich Pyotr Andreevich Pletnev - the most famous poet, critic, a very competent teacher of literature in one of his own articles, writes a famous review. He was associated with the theme of Russian poetry, which covered the period of recent decades. Pletnev mentions the work of Zhukovsky, Batiushkov and, of course, emphasizes the genius Alexander Pushkin. That's when the phrase flashes: "This is where the golden age of Russian literature began."
And much later, at the beginning of the twentieth century, inthe thirties, in Paris, Nicholas Otsup creates a famous article, where he tries to draw a line between when the poets of the golden age appeared and the beginning of the existence of the silver one.
He relied on the thoughts of the famous writer of FrancePaul Valerie, who discusses and studies the originality of Russian literature of the nineteenth century. He was delighted and overwhelmed by a huge number of brilliant creators who literally beamed like stars, during this period in Russia. This is both writers and poets of the golden age, whose list is headed by Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Mikhail Lermontov, as well as Tolstoy and Dostoevsky.
Paul Valerie compared this perfection of the Russianmultifaceted art with the development of the ancient theater. Then, in just a few centuries, only a few brilliant creators were able to form the entire dramatic culture of Europe. He admires all works of writers, as well as poems of the golden age of Russian literature.
Thus arose the idea of a special centuryRussian art, which includes all the literature of the nineteenth century. Writers and poets of the golden age, first of all, are connected with Pushkin's epoch. And this is the time when some results of the entire preceding eighteenth century were summed up.
At the same time, national traditions are formed,many habitually called Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin the founder of the new Russian literature. But when this golden age is perceived in a broader sense, then it is necessary to recall the entire nineteenth century.
And it is worth mentioning as Pushkin's epoch, andto include there the work of Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Anton Chekhov. This is the result of a century when writers and poets of the golden age help literary creativity acquire the character of world sound. And here, not only the achievements of the nation, but the recognition of Russian culture in another broader arena of the arts.
But still poems of the poets of the golden age are,first of all, to Pushkin's time. And initially the century of genius literature was associated with the creators of the first half of the nineteenth century. And if you rely on the judgments of Pletnev, then we are talking about the work of Konstantin Nikolaevich Batyushkov, Vasily Andreevich Zhukovsky and, of course, Pushkin.
There is some evidence of a ringthe composition that the poets of the golden age make up. It is a bright flash in the work of poetry. And the middle of the nineteenth century will be more connected with works related to prose. Although in this period several collections of equally amazing creators are published. These are such poets of the golden age of Russian literature as Nekrasov, Fedor Ivanovich Tyutchev and Fet. So it turns out that these authors and their three collections turn out to be exactly in the middle between two centuries of Russian literature. Nevertheless, they are perceived as poets of the golden age.
Russian poetry of that time was not worshipedonly Russian readers, but also many well-known critics of European countries. Despite the fact that in the territory of Western countries no less famous and talented creators were born, Russian poetry evoked some special trepidation.
In the thirties, the efforts of Mikhail VasilyevichLomonosov, Trediakovsky and a little later - Sumarokov, there will be a special system of versification, which will be used by many poets of the golden age. Russian creators of the time were noted as the most ingenious and original authors. In their works there was an independent, independent intonation.
They managed not only to hear and seeall the greatness of Russian nature, but sing it in your poems. It was the poets of the golden age who were able to express the philosophical harmony of the relationship between man and nature. They practically grew into the elements expressing their anxieties, joys and thoughts in poems, poems, ballads, odes and stanzas.
And the most outstanding, of course, was AlexanderSergeevich Pushkin. His lines are studied at school, his verses are known to many readers, and dozens of historians from all over the world study the biography. But no less brilliant is Mikhail Lermontov, who all his short life was in the shadow of Pushkin, which oppressed him. The works of the author are always filled with suffering, anguish and a thirst for freedom.
Undoubtedly one, genius, uniqueness,independence of thinking and boundless love for their homeland - these qualities were enjoyed by absolutely all poets of the golden age. Dozens of creations of famous authors belong to Russian poetry. These great creations to this day touch the hearts of readers and cause strong emotions and feelings.