Lydia Nikolaevna Smirnova (1915-2007) - the well-knownactress of cinema and theater, People's Artist of the USSR, winner of the USSR State Prize. Most Soviet viewers remember such films by Lydia Smirnova as "The Village Detective", "My Love", "Carnival", "The Return of the Son". No less popular were such films as "The Wedding of Balzaminov", "The Shelter of Comedians" and many others.
Lydia Smirnova, whose biography will be described inthis article, was born in Tobolsk in 1915. The mother of the future actress died when the girl was barely 4 years old. This event was preceded by another tragedy: Lida's 9-month-old brother fell to the stone floor, hit his head, which led to the death of the boy. Mother could not survive and went mad, and then died. Then Lydia Smirnova lost her father. When the civil war began, he went to the front and fought on the White side. The girl remained in the care of Peter (brother of the father) and his wife Marousi. Then came the news of his father's death, and Lida remained an orphan. Here is how she herself recalls those events: "I learned that I was not native, after finishing school. Uncle and aunt gave birth to two children. Peter worked as an accountant, and Marusya was in charge of the farm and was engaged in our upbringing. Then we moved to Moscow, but life in this city was difficult. "
At school Lydia Smirnova did not study very diligently. Her incorrect behavior was constantly discussed by the teachers. Once the girl played with the guys in the classroom and accidentally threw the stool out the window. She fell on the head of a passing man. The trauma was serious, and the passer-by told the police. The pedagogical council was urgently convened, where they decided to expel Lida from school. However, subsequently this decision was canceled, and the girl remained at school. After graduating from seven classes, the future actress decided to enter the technical school, and after his graduation became a laboratory assistant in the Aviation Industry Department. In the evening, Lida attended lectures at the Aviation Institute. She could not attend the full-time department due to lack of funds.
In 1932 Lydia Smirnova, whose biographyknown to all the fans of her work, leaves the house. The reason for this was, it would seem, a trifle - the future actress dropped a jar of foam on the floor. Seeing this, Auntie attacked Lida with her fists, and the girl's patience was overflowing. The next day she told this situation to her boss. He went to Lydia for a meeting: he gave an order to give her three hundred rubles and got a small room for Smirnova. So began her adult life.
In the same year Lidia Smirnova married27-year-old journalist Sergei Dobrushin. The future actress met him on a ski trip. According to Smirnova's recollections, she returned to the company of friends at the ski base. To meet them was another group of skiers, which was closed by a young handsome guy. Lida caught a glimpse of him, then they looked back and went straight to each other. A month later the happy couple played a wedding.
Unexpectedly for all Lydia Smirnova, biographywhich can serve as an example for imitation, left the 2nd course of the aviation institute and applied to three theatrical high schools: Vakhtangov School, VGIK and school-studio at the Chamber Theater. It was accepted everywhere, but Smirnova stopped her choice on the last option because of the proximity to the house. The school was headed by Alexander Tairov. When Lida finished her studies, he offered her a place in her theater. It should be noted that only two students from the entire course received such an invitation. Chamber Theater was at that time very popular, and Smirnova offered a leading role in the film "My Love". And Lydia chose a movie. In the theater the girl managed to play only in the play "The Aristocrats". After that, Kamerny left for tour, and Lydia Smirnova, whose photo is here, began her acting career.
"Nastenka Ustinova" is the first film inwhich actress played an episodic role in 1934. The real career began for Lida from the film "My Love". After the release of the film on the screens, the charming Shurochka fell into the hearts and minds of a large number of spectators. You can say that the actress played herself. Shurochka, like Lida, was full of optimism, energy and faith in a bright future. After the premiere of the film, Smirnova recalled: "It was the happiest day. In Leningrad and Moscow, my portraits hung everywhere. From the courtyard came the songs written for the film Dunaevsky. I was recognized on the street and called Shurochka, not Lida. They took autographs and wrote many letters. " Lydia Smirnova, whose personal life underwent changes at that time, was happy. She had a romantic relationship with the composer Isaac Dunaevsky. Lovers met in the three-room suite of Isaac in the hotel "Moscow". This continued throughout the entire shooting period, which lasted several months. Then Lidia had an abortion. Unfortunately, after that the girl could not conceive any more. Therefore, we inform those fans of the creativity of the actress who are looking for information on the topic "Lydia Smirnova, children" - they did not have them.
In early 1940, the actress left for Yalta onshooting the picture "The case in the volcano." Every day Dunaevsky sent telegrams and letters to Lydia. And while Isaak was longing for her, Smirnova had a new hobby. She fell in love with Valery Ushakov, who occupied the position of captain on the steamer "Kuban". Their visits were held in strict secrecy and kept secret from Eugene Schneider (the director of the film). About this novel knew only a few actors who helped the lovers. However, once in the room of Lydia without warning came people from the screening commission, and Ushakov had to go down from the window on the connected sheets. Dunaevsky continued to yearn for Smirnova and send her telegrams, and after the return of the actress offered her a hand and heart. Lydia refused.
When the war began, Sergei Dobrushin (husbandactress) went to the front. Meanwhile, Lydia Smirnova, whose filmography has more than a dozen paintings, lived in Moscow and was busy shooting in combat cinematographs. At night, she extinguished incendiary bombs. After a while, thanks to her fame, she managed to visit her husband to the front and spend 3 days with him. Soon Sergei was killed near Smolensk. The actress was shocked by the death of her husband. The place of her work - the studio "Mosfilm" - was evacuated to Alma-Ata. There, Lipia's benevolence began to be sought by Vladimir Rapoport (operator) and Friedrich Ermler (director). The actresses had to starve. Once, when Lydia Smirnova and Vera Maretskaya sat in the same room, Ermler came to them. He brought 2 boiled eggs and a smokehouse. Then Rapoport came and gave out 30 eggs from his ration. Maretskaya said: "And you still think? Frederick will always wear 2 eggs all the time, and Vladimir will give everything he has! "
In Alma-Ata Smirnova Lydia (actress of theater and cinema)almost died of typhus. When she went on the amendment, Rapoport surrounded her with care and attention: he took them to the mountains and confessed his love. Years later, Lydia recalled: "I was courted by so many people, tried to achieve reciprocity, and only one really cared for, knowing how defenseless and lonely I was." Soon the actress married him and lived with Vladimir until his death in 1975.
The military period was very fruitful increative career of Smirnova. The theme of trials in wartime, female heroism, irreparable loss and perseverance in the performance of its heroines impressed all Soviet movie lovers. In 1941, there were two films with her participation: "Two friends" and "We are waiting for you with a victory". And in 1942 she received a key role in the film "A guy from our city". In 1943, three more films appeared: "Native Shores", "Missing" and "She Defends the Motherland". "Naval battalion" - another military painting in 1944, in which Lidia Smirnova managed to act. The actress looked great in it.
After the war, Lydia continues to withdraw regularlyin films in the role of heroic women. In addition, characteristic roles, in particular, negative, were not alien to her. For example, in 1953 she played prostitute Flossie Beit in the movie "Silver Dust". Separately, I want to mention the painting "Sisters" by Lydia Smirnova, filmed in 1957. The role of Nastya-Zhuchki became for the actress one of the most beloved. In 1964, she got the role of matchmaker in the famous "The Wedding of Balzaminov." In the same year, Lydia played a doctor in the "Welcome" and the saleswoman Duska in a series of films about Aniskin. An interesting fact - in the early 1950s, when the cinema was in crisis, Smirnova wanted to change her profession, and even began to master the position of chairman of the collective farm. However, the love of cinema was stronger.
In 1953 on the set in Kislovodsk, an actressfell in love with the director Mikhail Kalatozov. He offered her a role in his painting "Faithful Friends." Lydia refused to act, and her place was taken by Liliya Gritsenko. The refusal of the actress did not affect the relationship with the director, and they continued to meet. Kalatozov fell in love without a memory, and even suggested that Smirnova legitimize relations, after leaving for Georgia. However, in the life of Lydia appeared another man - the director Konstantin Voinov. It was he who offered the actress a key role in his film "Sisters". Their romance lasted almost 40 years. However, this did not stop the actress from starting a new relationship. The next elect Smirnova was directed by Lev Rudnik. This was Smirnova's most turbulent novel, which they learned far beyond the acting environment. Because of this, Rudnik was expelled from the CPSU. Meanwhile, Voinov gave the actress the opportunity to work in a new role for her, and Smirnova began to play age-old heroines. In her book Lydia Nikolaevna wrote: "I was very fond of Constantine, but I had a husband (unofficial marriage), who was waiting at home. I had to rent a room and live a double life. Voinov threw me a wife and daughter for me, and I betrayed him, saying that I can not leave my mortally sick husband. Rapoport lay in the oncological center with stomach cancer. Doctors gave medicines, conducted irradiation sessions, but in the end they were discharged, because they were unable to help anything more. "
The diagnosis was made by Rapoport in 1962 inInstitute Sklifosovsky, where he was in a general ward with 17 patients. Then Smirnova asked for help from high-ranking colleagues, but received no response. Then Lydia went to the Central Committee of the CPSU, but it did not help either. Officials as if did not hear her request. Then Lidia Nikolayevna decided to hand over her party card to one of the leaders of the Central Committee. Rapoport was immediately transferred to the hospital of the MK CPSU. Thanks to the care and efforts of his wife, Vladimir lived another 13 years and died in June 1975. A year before his death, he made Smirnova a gift for 60 years - a role in the second film from the series of paintings about Aniskin.
Lidia remembered: "Vladimir always loved and protected me, like a father or mother. I only gave him trouble, anxiety and occasions for jealousy. I think he chose what he needed more - lose me or be with me and put up with some restrictions. The people around said that I was a bitch and tortured this holy man. And about who was easier ... Who lives with a loved one or someone who continues to live with an unloved? However, he was too sick, and I could not leave him. It would kill him right away. "
Despite everything, the actress Lydia Smirnova,whose personal life was very stormy, continued to be actively withdrawn in the 70's and 80's. In 1981, her heroine took the exam in Irina Muravieva in the movie "Carnival".
Smirnova - one of the few Soviet movie stars,which was fortunate enough to appear in post-Soviet films. In the 1990s she took part in five films, and in the 2000s - in four more. Even in old age Smirnova was unusually active and active. She was a member of the Board of the Union of Cinematographers and the National Academy of Cinematographic Arts, was engaged in public activities and traveled a lot around Russia.
Lydia Nikolaevna was very sympathetic andand because of this, she was often asked for help. Smirnova had a collection of dolls in national costumes, occupying the whole wall of her apartment. She loved showing it to her guests. Another actress was fond of tennis, horseback riding, slalom kayak, listened to classics and went to the ballet.
Lydia Smirnova died in Moscow in 2007 after a long illness. Buried next to her husband at the Vvedenskoye cemetery. About the life of the actress made a documentary.