The architect Gaudi was born in 1852, 25June. He died in 1926, June 10. Antonio Gaudi was born in the city of Reus, in a peasant family. This city is located 150 km from Barcelona. The child was baptized in Reus, in St. Peter's Cathedral, the next day. In honor of Antonia, his mother, the future architect Gaudi was named. His works and brief biographical information will be presented in this article.
Parents were afraid that the child would not survive. The pregnancy of his mother was difficult, the birth was difficult. Shortly before the birth of Antonio, his parents already mourned two children. For some reason, in this family, all the children died very early. The boy overheard one day as a child conversation with the doctor of his parents. He predicted the imminent inevitable death of Antonio. However, Antonio Gaudi decided to survive. And he managed to do this, although all his life he was sick of disease. He looked 30 years older than his peers, a decrepit old man - at fifty. Antonio knew that he was not just alive.
The boy's father and grandfather were blacksmiths. One grandfather of his mother was a bondman, the second a sailor. This Antonio explained his ability to feel and think in three dimensions. He could watch for hours in the childhood how the water flows, as clouds float. Antonio was interested in how the leaves form the crown, how the flower is arranged, how water is treated by the stone, why the tree does not fall under the gusts of wind. Then he was attracted by his father's workshop. In her, miracles were performed every day: shiny vessels were made from flat copper sheets. Antonio from 1863 to 1868 he studied at the school, which was transformed from a Catholic college. He was not a good student. Geometry is the only thing in which it was marked. Antonio's favorite pastime was drawing. He loved together with his friends to explore the dilapidated surrounding monasteries.
In 1878, Gaudi graduated from the Provincial School of Architecture in Barcelona.
In his youth, Antonio was a dandy and a dandy,a fan of silk black cylinders and kid gloves. He had red hair and blue eyes. Many ladies fell in love with Gaudi, but he remained alone. He nursed for a long time behind Pepeta Moreu, a teacher, but she responded to the offer of the hand and heart with a refusal, because she was already engaged. Then Gaudi briefly met with the American, but she returned to her homeland, and their ways diverged. Antonio saw in this a sign of fate: he must be alone. It is a sacrifice for the sake of a high goal.
It is useless today to look for traces of Gaudi in Reus. You will find only the same type of tablets, nailed to the office buildings, saying that in this place once stood a house ... Unless the atmosphere of this ancient city deserves attention: lush Baroque mansions, Gothic Sant Pere with its 40-meter bell tower . The master managed to reproduce almost exactly the spiral staircase of the bell tower in the Sagrada Familia Cathedral. The photo below shows the house in which the Gaudí family lived in Reus.
The author of eighteen facilities isarchitect Gaudi. All of them are executed on the territory of Spain: 14 - in their native Catalonia, 12 of them in Barcelona. The trail of legends and myths stretches behind each of these creations. His houses are rebuses. It seems that it is impossible to unravel their hidden meaning.
Many of the architectural sites in the city of Barcelonacreated Gaudi. In the world there are not many architects who had such a significant impact on the appearance of a particular city or who created something equally significant for their culture. Gaudí is the most famous architect in Spain. His work marked the flowering of Art Nouveau in this country. A characteristic feature of Gaudi's style is that natural, organic forms (animals, rocks, trees, clouds) have become sources of the author's architectural fantasies. Antonio did not like geometrically correct and closed spaces. He believed that a straight line is a product of man. But the circle is the product of God. Antonio Gaudi declared war on a straight line, having formed his own style, which is easily recognized even by people far from architecture.
With the scandal began the career of Antonio. 26-year-old architect Gaudi demanded a fee, which, according to the authorities of Barcelona, was too large. And today the Royal Square is decorated with Mercury's winged helmets and monumental lights designed by a budding architect. The first municipal order executed by Gaudi was the last. More than ever, the authorities of Barcelona did not offer any work to this master.
Only 20 years later, architect Gaudi receivedthe only official award in his biography is the city prize for the façade of the mansion, which he executed for the Calvet family, the textile magnates. Not without raisin work was done, but Casa Calvet, rather reserved, is the most unassuming project of Antonio Gaudi.
The master was trusted by private clients. Gaudi (the architect) and his house deserved the recognition of contemporaries. Don Montaner, the manufacturer, in 1883, ordered him a summer home. Architect Antonio Gaudi, examining for the first time the place of future construction, while still a suburb, discovered a huge palm surrounded by yellow flowers. He preserved both vegetation and wood. Palm leaves made up the lattice pattern, and the flowers are seen on the facing tile. They say that, paying for the fantasies of Antonio Gaudi, the customer almost went bankrupt. Today Casa Vicens is a small palace, as if from an eastern fairy tale. It is closely pinned by neighboring houses. The view from the nearest street is only a turret. Dense blinds are omitted, you can not enter inside, it's private property.
The strongest impression on Barcelona was made byextravagant debut. Gaudi, most importantly, had a patron who was called Don Eusebio Güell. This man had an impeccable taste. He liked risky experiments. Guell did not impose his opinion, he signed the estimates without looking. Architect Antonio Gaudi gradually became a family architect and friend of Guelay.
For a long time Eusebio dreamed of a practical beautiful house. With this task, Gaudi masterfully managed. The architect squeezed into the narrow space (only 18 by 22 meters) a beautiful mansion, simultaneously reminiscent of the Venetian palazzo and the mosque. Luxury interiors were hidden behind the gray marble facade of this building. Money for finishing did not spare: rosewood, ebony, ivory, tortoiseshell. One of the rooms is faced with beech, the other - eucalyptus. Carved ceilings with leaves are made of silver and gold. Gaudi, here for the first time, turned the roof with vent pipes and chimneys into the garden of standing stones.
Gaudi and Guell dreamed of turning the Bald Mountain into a garden. They wanted private villas located here to be drowned in greenery. Around the estates around the perimeter there were aqueducts, grottoes, fountains, gazebos, paths, alleys. The project commercially failed. Only 2 sites out of 60 were sold. The wealthy people did not want to live so far from the city limits. Today's barcelona, of course, would approve the choice of place.
The compressed spring resembles the layout of the park. Serpentine to the top from the foot climb steep stairs and winding paths. Park Guell now - not only a joy for the eyes and soul, but also a pleasure for the lungs: it was above the smog level. Clean air and palm groves today are so necessary for urban residents! A pool with a dragon and a snake is a favorite entertainment for children. And the one who decides to get to the top, in return will receive a magnificent view of the sea and Barcelona.
The favorite ritual was sitting on a bench-snake. According to the recollections of the contractor, Gaudi ordered the workers to remove all clothing and as comfortable as possible to sit on a fresh layer of mortar in order to obtain the perfect shape of the seat. Only at first, the running pattern of colorful glittering ceramics seems random. A number of numbers, composite pictures, mysterious drawings, encrypted messages, mysterious signs, magic formulas are scattered all over the length of the bench. There are many stories about how the people sitting on it began to suddenly discern the lasting dates, names, words of prayers, inscriptions ...
The architect and in 50 years does not change hisloneliness, becomes more religious. Antonio moves to Park Guell from the center of Barcelona, away from the city bustle. People are afraid and respect the master. He is closed, eccentric, sharp. Nothing remains of Gaudi's former panache. The main thing is convenience: a shapeless costume, custom-made shoes from the roots of a courgette. Gaudi observes all posts. Eating it - raw vegetables, nuts, olive oil, bread with honey and spring water.
He said at the height of his career that he would work from now on only over religious orders. And if a secular project is offered, first he will ask permission for this job from Madonna of Montserrat.
In the autumn of 1904 Gaudi undertook to rebuilda mansion of Kasanovus, a textile tycoon. No wonder the quarter in which the house was located, was nicknamed the "apple of discord". On one patch along the street Gracia stand, closely nestled, the buildings of the most famous architects of Catalonia - a kind of parade of ambitions and claims. It is best to come here in the morning, when the sun's rays fall on the facade and it, covered with "fish scales", shimmers with all sorts of colors. There are no corners, no faces, no straight lines. The walls are curved as if an unknown sea monster plays under its skin-lining with its muscles. The house of bones was nicknamed by the townspeople of Casa Batlo. In this there is something: the balconies of the skull and the column-bones are the remains of the victims of the huge dragon. However, they are already avenged - the tower with a cross rises above the roof. This Saint George, who is the patron saint of Catalonia, raised his sword victoriously. The spine of the defeated dragon is a serrated, curved crest of the roof.
Ten minutes walk from this building - and youget to Casa Mila. Again, Gaudi violated his pledge: he began to design a multi-family large house with all the amenities: garages, hot water. The architect planned even to make a ramp in order to reach the doors of the apartments tenants directly on the car. This hulk in comparison with the Casa Batllo grows straight from under the earth, like a mighty old baobab, or a lava flowing out, or weathered rocks, or the skeleton of a lost ship ...
And this building barcelontsy awarded a lotnicknames - "hornets' nest", "kennel for snakes", "earthquake victims", "railway catastrophe", etc. "La Pedrera" (in translation - quarry) entrenched it. On the roof - arches, stairs, descents, ascents. And now you can rent an apartment in La Pedrera. The apartments are cozy and comfortable, but you will have to endure the incessant countless tourist flows.
For half a century of work, he executed 75 orders of the architectGaudi. Photos of some of his works are presented in this article. As often happens in architecture, some of them did not go further than the outline, however these were the sketches of a genius. One of them is the grandiose project of a hotel in New York - a 300-meter "hotel temple", which was executed by the great Gaudi-architect.
Casa Mila - the last big order executedGaudi. His only goal since 1910 was the Sagrada Familia, otherwise Sagrada Familia. Antonio was even buried here, in a small underground chapel.
Like all life, which lived the architectAntonio Gaudi, the Temple of the Holy Family is full of explicit and hidden signs. 12 towers are dedicated to the apostles. The symbol of the Savior's sacrifice is the central one, with a cross. The interior is the garden: the columns are the trunks of sycamores, the closing crowns of which form a dome. Through it at night, the stars are visible. The building was designed in such a way that bells sounded like a grand organ, and the wind sang, passing through the holes in the towers, like a real chorus. Here there are benches for 30 thousand worshipers.
Works on the creation of the temple began in 1882. They were led first by the architects De Villard and Martorell. Architect Gaudi Temple of the Holy Family began to design and create in 1891. He retained the plan of his predecessors, but made some changes.
The temple, according to the plan of Gaudi, was to become an allegory of the Nativity of Christ, which is represented by three facades. Christmas is dedicated to the eastern, southern - to the Resurrection, the western - to the Passion of Christ.
An abundant sculpture is equipped with towers and portalstemple. Real prototypes have all the characters depicted on the facade of Christmas: the grandson of the worker is the baby Jesus, the watchman-alcoholic is Judas, the fat one is Pontius Pilate, the handsome plasterer is King David. The local junkman lent the donkey. Gaudi visited the anatomical theater, removed plaster castings from stillborn children for the scene of beating babies. Dozens of times lifted and lowered every sculpture, every stone, before installing them on the right place.
All the time architect Gaudi, whose biographybriefly described, something painfully thought out, altered, mocked, drew. Therefore it is not surprising that the process was so prolonged. Master in 1886 said confidently that he would complete the cathedral in 10 years, but later on increasingly compared his child to the temples of the Middle Ages, erected over the centuries.
The style of the temple resembles remotely Gothic. However, this is at the same time something completely new. The building is calculated for a choir of 1500 singers, as well as a children's choir (700 people). The temple was to become the center of Catholicism. Pope Leon XIII from the very beginning supported the construction.
Despite the fact that for 35 years were conductedwork on the project, Gaudi was able to finish only the Christmas facade and 4 towers above it. Until now, the western part of the apse has not been completed, which makes up a large part of the building. Construction continues even now, more than 70 years after the death of Antoni Gaudi. The spiers are gradually being built (there was only one finished during Antonio's life), the facades with the images of the evangelists and apostles, scenes of the death and ascetic life of the Savior are made out. It is planned to finish the work by about 2030.
In 1926, on June 7, the architect Antonio Gaudi,whose biography was briefly described, left the Sagrada Familia at 5:30 pm in the evening and went as usual to an evening confession. On this day in Barcelona, the first tram was launched. Under it came Gaudi. The driver of the tram hit him later said that he knocked down a drunken tramp. There were no documents for Gaudi, in his pockets found a handful of nuts and the Gospel. He died in a shelter for the homeless in three days and had to be buried with others in a common grave. Only accidentally an elderly woman recognized him. In the photo below, Gaudi's funeral took place on June 12th.
2002 was declared the year of Gaudi. The architect Antonio Gaudi and his creations evoke great interest today.
For more than 10 years, a campaign has beensupport the reckoning of this person to the saints. The Pope is expected to sign in 2015 a document on beatification, which will be the third of the four stages of canonization. It is planned that Antonio will become the patron saint of architects. Undoubtedly, Antoni Gaudi deserved it. Even great architects could take an example from him. Gaudi is a model of spirituality and genius, united in his personality.