Marketing mix is a special set of tools,which allows the marketer to achieve the main goal: to meet the needs of customers and increase sales. With the help of these tools, demand is formed and consumer behavior is controlled.
The concept of marketing appears in the second half19 century, when in response to overproduction, there was a need to find new tools to spur sales of products. The new concept was defined as a certain activity aimed at increasing the company's profits. Today there are at least a thousand different definitions. In general, marketing is understood as a process aimed at studying the market and forming a circle of consumers of the goods.
The main goal of marketing is satisfactionneeds of consumers. To do this, the market is studied, the product is projected, its price is determined and promotion is planned. Marketing seeks to establish effective communication between the producer and the buyer of the product in order to maximize consumption. In addition, he faces the goals of an in-depth study of the market situation and studying the needs of the consumer and the specifics of his behavior. It is designed to increase the customer's satisfaction with the goods in order to lead to a re-purchase. Improving the quality of life of consumers, expanding the product range to meet the needs of the population to the fullest extent is also the sphere of marketing functioning. Based on these goals, marketing functions are defined: marketing, analytical, product-production, communicative, managerial and controlling.
In 1953, in American marketing for the first timeThe term "marketing mix" is used, under which Neil Borden understood a special set of tools to achieve the desired marketing results. Later, McCarthy clarified this concept and developed the concept of 4p-marketing, which became synonymous with the concept of "marketing mix." It included elements such as product, price, place, promotion. He found that the four basic elements, without which it is impossible to organize the marketing activities of an enterprise, exist in any kind of production and are universal.
In general, a marketing mix is a set of measures and tools that allow a company to influence the demand for products and services produced.
The first element of marketing-mix is the product(or product). This is the starting point of marketing activities, and it is understood as a certain object or service that has a certain value for the consumer. In the goods at the design stage, it is necessary to lay down those qualities and properties that will be in demand with the consumer. To successfully implement the product, the marketer needs to be well aware of what needs he is able to satisfy, what are the advantages and weaknesses of the product. Also, it is necessary to imagine what product improvements can increase its sales, which he can be in demand on. To increase sales, you need to take care of the packaging of the product, its attractiveness and informativeness, and the registration of the trademark for quick identification of the product by the consumer. To create customer loyalty to the product, it would be nice to provide guarantees and additional service for the customer.
Complex marketing mix includes settingprices. This is a very important action on which the success or failure of a product in the market depends. The price should not be too low or unmotivatedly inflated, as it can deter a buyer. Despite the seeming ease of maximizing profits through a high price, it is necessary to carefully set a high or low cost, as it is a powerful factor in the image of the product and the manufacturer. The price must necessarily be competitive, adequate to the purchasing power of consumers and the chosen strategy. Price can be an instrument of promotion in such strategies as penetration of the market or "skimming cream." When designing the cost of a product, several options should be envisaged for different distribution channels, the possibility of providing discounts.
The choice of the place of distribution of goods is an importantelement of the marketing-mix complex. This choice is based on a thorough analysis of consumer behavior. It is necessary in the course of the research to identify the places where it will be most convenient for the consumer to make a purchase. The organization of sales, like other methods of sales promotion, should encourage a person to buy. The procedure for purchasing a product should be extremely simplified and fast, the consumer should not spend much effort on making a purchase. When developing a marketing strategy, it is necessary to define coverage markets and distribution channels. Also an important part of the sales organization is the merchandising system (advertising at the sales points, including the layout of the goods, atmosphere and navigation in the store).
A marketing mix is what most oftenis associated with promotion. Indeed, the promotion is an important component of the marketing mix. In its structure it is customary to distinguish four groups of tools: advertising, methods of sales promotion, PR, direct sales. These funds are used in a complex, solving long-term and short-term tasks. Advertising and sales promotion usually give quick results, PR is a low-intensity technology and creates a delayed effect. The complex of means of promotion is realized in the form of a media strategy of the company. For B2B and B2C markets, different tools are used.
Marketing mix is a certain action plan,operations can not be reversed or released as unnecessary. Each element of the complex requires concerted and thought-out marketing activities. The main marketing tools are the marketing, price, product and communication policies of the enterprise. In addition to the marketing mix, there is the notion of a media mix - a set of tools for promoting a product in an information environment. It includes direct advertising in the media (radio, television, etc.), event marketing, various promotions, advertising on the Internet.