At present, there are a huge number of parks. Each city, and often a village, has it. What is the park and which of them is the most interesting?
The park is a natural or artificial, usually landscaped area created for recreation. But such a scant definition does not reveal the whole essence of this concept.
The park is an art. Even in ancient times, its design could take years, and the work included hundreds of people. After a century, little has changed. Only now there are many varieties of parks. They differ from each other in shape, size, plantations. In addition, there are urban, manor, landscape parks, a separate niche is occupied by amusement parks, in which more important are not plants, but attractions.
The very word denotes a "fenced place". In the traditional sense, the park is a site planted with bushes and trees, flower beds and lawns, which are supplemented by such attributes as alleys, benches, terraces, observation platforms, arbours, ponds, fountains, etc. By style they can be French or, for example, English. A separate classification is made up of areas where the main task is to preserve and study nature, and not create a place for recreation. This includes botanical, zoological, national parks.
The idea to create compositions from natural materialsappeared in ancient China. In ancient Greece, there was a tradition to plant trees along pedestrian roads, in Persia park art was considered a sacred activity. One of the first parks in the world for which the layout was used is the Egyptian Gardens of Semiramis. From Egypt, the idea of parks-gardens came to Arab Spain, then to Catholic, then to the rest of Europe.
Until the 18th century the parks were called gardens. In Europe, they appeared in the Middle Ages and initially were created only on the territory of monasteries. In the Renaissance, they are gaining popularity in Italy. Then, following the Ancient Greece, in the gardens were placed sculptures and colonnades. A wide distribution of parks are obtained in the Baroque era, among the decorators there are true professionals of garden business.
Park "Schönbrunn" in Austria, "Get-Loo" inThe Netherlands and the "Vo-le-Vicomte" in France are considered exemplary for Europe. They appeared in the XVII century and are part of the palace and park ensemble. In the territories there are many fountains and sculptures, and the flower beds and bushes form muddled patterns.
The Tokyo park "Ueno" became world famous. In the spring, a myriad of Japanese cherries bloom here. Park Gaudi in Barcelona is an example of the connection of architectural forms and green spaces. In this place, fantasy bursts into reality with quaint houses, caves and salamanders.
Alupka Park in Crimea, created on the initiativeCount Vorontsov, impresses not less than European ones. There are several lakes, many fountains and springs, as well as hundreds of exotic plants that have been brought from all over the world. Vorontsovsky Park is a magnificent example of a landscape park where nature becomes one with the creation of man.