On the roads of the Russian Federation, about50 stone bridges. Each of them is arched type with a circular, less often ellipsoidal, outline of the arch. Stone bridges make up only 0.8% of all existing structures. 25 years ago there were about 100, half a century ago - more than 150. Even if we take into account those stone bridges that are now transferred to the category of "pipe" or not at all on the balance sheet, there will be no more than 1 on the federal network, 5 %.
Reduction of similar structures is typical andfor local networks. So, for example, in the Moscow region of the existing 800 stone structures only 5, about 10 - in the Urals. Approximately 20 bridges are operated in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region, in Moscow today there are only 4 arched crossings. In the North Caucasus, construction of such structures has been suspended. Even in Dagestan, where stone bridge construction was given the first place, in the last decade only 3 new facilities appeared. And this suggests that in Russia stone bridges unjustifiably replace industrial ferro-concrete and metal structures, and this also applies to areas rich in this rock.
One of the earliest designs in the capital wasis built of brick across the Neglinka River. It connects the Trinity Gate of the Kremlin Tower with Kutafia Strelnik. The stone bridge in Moscow initially had no supports with water cutters and vaults. According to historian Zabelin, the stone building was built in 1367, today it is crossed by the park - Alexander Garden.
A large stone bridge in Moscow was built infar back in 1692. Then he was called All-Svyatsky. However, since 1858 the Big Stone Bridge is considered the first iron construction of Moscow. In the 16th century, from one shore to the other, one could cross only by a "live" floating ferry. In the 17th century, the construction of a stone bridge began, in 1938 it was already reinforced, but the name remained the same. In order for it to fully correspond to the name, it was faced with granite.
The panorama of the Kremlin, opening from the Stone Bridge,can be seen on the back of the passports of Russian citizens. In addition, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, Sofia, Prechistenskaya and Bersenevskaya embankments are viewed from this construction.
In Moscow, built and other stone bridges for crossing rivers and ravines. At the end of the 18th century, China-city and the Kremlin were connected by two artificial structures - Spassky and Nikolsky.
Until the 15th century on the site of modern constructionthere was a floating crossing. Only in 1643, Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich gave the order to begin construction of the first stone bridge. Told it to a master from Strasbourg - Jagon Kristler. All construction work on the erection of the stone bridge stopped after the death of the king and master, completed all the unknown Russian monk in 1687. Completed it in 1692, and gave the name All-Svyatsky.
Stone bridge in length reached 170 meters, and inwidth - 22. He had 8 arches, those that were intended for skipping boats - with 15-meter spans. From the left bank, you could enter through the All-Svyatsky Gate, at the other end of the bridge there was a tower with a two-staged completion.
A dilapidated bridge of stone was disassembled and in 1858replaced it with a three-span metal (the first in Moscow). In 1938 a new construction appeared on this place, on which the engineer Kalmykov, architects Gelfreich, Schuko and Minkus worked. The length of the bridge is 487 meters (with entrances). It offers an excellent view of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Kremlin, and from here you can see the architectural monument "The House on the Embankment", designed by Iofan B.M.
A large stone bridge is known to all residents of the former USSR from the staff of the chronicle of Moscow. The view of this panorama has not changed and up to the present time it looks very good on the photos behind the backs of the newlyweds.
The bridge is considered a symbol of unification, thereforephotos taken at this place will constantly remind you of the meaning of this word. Think about how much in common. Bridge. Opposite coast. Two fates and one family.
Small stone bridge crosses the drainagechannel, is on the second place after the Patriarchal channel of the capital. This construction is located in the Yakimanka area, on the one side there is Serafimovich Street, and on the other - Bolshaya Polyanka.
A small stone bridge was opened in 1938. Its length is 64 meters with a width of 40 meters. This is not the first building built on this site. Previously, there was a bridge, the construction of which was completed in 1788. At that time it was wooden and was called "Kozmodemyanskiy". In 1880 it was replaced by a stone bridge with the corresponding name.
Over the modern design worked Yakovlev and Golbrodsky, for some time there existed tram ways.
In 1752 through the river Krivushu (today to usknown as the Griboedov Canal) built a wooden bridge with one span. Later, the engineer Nazimov developed a new ferry project. At that time it was the first building made of stone, that's why they called it the Stone Bridge. St. Petersburg today can boast of this crossing, and no rework has ever been undertaken. The peculiarity of the bridge is the use of a diamond rust. Many people do not understand this concept, so let us explain in more detail what it is. Under the diamond rust is meant the processing of protruding stones in the form of a tetrahedral pyramid, the facets of which, thanks to special polishing, brightly shine when the sun hits them, resembling diamonds. This method is often used in construction, but today it is rarely seen. Stone bridge (St. Petersburg) was built with four semicircular staircases to the water, which in the 19th century were eliminated.
In 1880, this place was planned for the 7thattempt on the emperor. Members of the party "Narodnaya Volya" under the bridge laid a bomb in order to blow up the crossing, when it will pass by the royal crew. Nevertheless, this venture was not destined to happen, as the agents of the security department timely opened the plan and the emperor Alexander II crossed the bridge before the People's Will arrived. In 1881, 7 poods of dynamite were extracted from the structure, but this happened after the Emperor's death.
Peter was honored as the guardian of Russian history. In one city there are many cathedrals, palaces, gorgeous fountains, magnificent museums and temples.
St. Petersburg - the main owner of variousferries, islets and canals. In the city there are drawbridges, pendant and stone bridges, on which visitors are strolling. All buildings have a unique solution. Forged frame gives them a certain uniqueness. With the construction of each bridge is connected with a story. It is this that explains the desire of the guests to admire the forged masterpieces of art.
Of course, all the bridges of St. Petersburg describe nomeaning. Anyway, their beauty can not be conveyed in words. I would like to note that stone bridges have truly become the pride of the second capital of Russia. The very first bridges appeared such as Laundry, Hermitage, Stone and Verkhne-Lebyazhy, they still adorn the city today.