Tobolsk Kremlin: the oldest monument of Russian architecture

In the XVII century the city of Tobolsk reached a largedevelopment, and it began to be called the capital of Siberia. Initially, the city Kremlin was wooden. However, he was often exposed to fires, so in the late seventies of the 17th century voevoda Peter Sheremetiev received a royal order to build a stone Tobolsk Kremlin. So, in 1677 the construction of a new Kremlin and St. Sophia Cathedral began.

The Tobolsk Kremlin


The Temple of St. Sophia was built for 10 years,but the Tobolsk Kremlin until its final form had to be built for several decades. The height of the fortress wall reached four and a half meters, and the length was 620 meters. It housed 9 security towers. Inside the fortress walls were built several churches and beautiful chambers (Treasury, Prikaznaya, etc.), Gostiny Dvor. In the architecture of these structures, the influence of European architecture is noticeable, which is characteristic of the reign of Peter the Great. The designer and construction manager was the remarkable Russian cartographer and geographer Semyon Remezov.

For some time the construction of the Kremlin wassuspended and resumed only in 1746. It was in that year near the St. Sophia Church that the Intercession Cathedral was built. By the end of the 18th century the Tobolsk Kremlin lost its defensive importance and began to turn into the center of the city. Naturally, the fortress walls had to be dismantled. Near the Pokrovsky Cathedral, the residence of the highest clergyman of Siberia, the bishop, was built, and next to the Chamber of the Chambers - the Governor's Palace - is a beautiful building in the style of Russian classicism. However, the most famous moment in the history of the Kremlin was the completion of the construction of a giant four-tier Cathedral belltower (75 meters) on the very eve of the 19th century.

The Prison Castle of the Tobolsk Kremlin
Tobolsk Kremlin address

From the first decade of the new century Tobolskceased to be considered the capital of Siberia and transferred this title to another large Siberian city - Omsk, having become a transit point for convicts. Therefore, on the territory of the Kremlin was built Prison Castle, which accommodates about one and a half thousand prisoners. What kind of famous guests did not take this castle in their "hospitable" walls: Chernyshevsky, Dostoevsky, Korolenko, Petrashevsky, etc. By the way, in Soviet times, especially Stalin's, this prison also served as a destination

The Tobolsk Kremlin and the 20th Century
Tobolsk Kremlin Photos

The establishment of Soviet power brought a lotgriefs to the inhabitants of Tobolsk. All temples and churches that hosted the Tobolsk Kremlin were destroyed and plundered. But in the building of the archbishop's house from 1925 the largest museum of local lore in Siberia began to operate. Since 1961, churches and other buildings located on the site of the fortress have been transferred to the museum, and the Tobolsk Kremlin (left photo) became known as the State Historical and Architectural Reserve. Many of the destroyed architectural monuments were restored and restored. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, almost all Tobolsk churches began to conduct church services. Every year thousands of tourists visit the Tobolsk Kremlin. Its address resembles the address of the Moscow Kremlin - Red Square, 1, only the city of Tobolsk.

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