Dagestan is the republic of Russia, which is locatedin the southernmost part of the country. In addition, it is multinational and unites 102 nationalities. Among them are both indigenous and visiting populations. Indigenous people include the Avars, Agulians, Andians, Kubachins, Dargins, Laks, Rutul, Lezgins, Tabasarans, Cesium and others.
The culture and traditions of the peoples of Dagestan are verythey were formed over many years and passed down from generation to generation. Each of these peoples has its own characteristics and differences, which give them identity.
Maarulal or Avars are the people of Dagestan,numbering about 577 thousand people. They are scattered throughout western Dagestan, especially in mountainous areas. Most of them are rural residents. They communicate in their Avar language, which has many dialects. Avars profess Islam, but elements of paganism in their faith are still present. They are holy to nature, honor it and call for help, performing magical rituals.
The traditional occupation for these people iscattle breeding and agriculture. Of animals, cattle are bred preferably, and in the mountains - sheep. Avars developed a highly organized structure of terraced farming, which in the mountains was supplemented by an irrigation system. Like other peoples of Dagestan, Avars have been actively using domestic crafts since ancient times. These include weaving, embroidery, knitting from wool, carving on wood and stone, blacksmithing.
The Agul people of Dagestan live in the southernparts. The population of this population is approximately 8-9 thousand people. For communication, they use the Agul language, which is akin to Lezgin. This population lives in 21 settlements of southeastern Dagestan.
The traditions of this people, as well as the traditions of the peoplesDagestan as a whole are unique. The main occupation for centuries Agulians was cattle breeding. Only men had the right to take care of the sheep. Women were engaged exclusively in large cattle.
Metal processing was a very important aspectlife agulians. The smiths made axes, scythes, knives and sickles that would be useful in any farm. Agulians were excellent builders. They built bridges, houses and mosques. Decorated their buildings with artfully carved stones, in the ornaments of which the entire culture of the peoples of Dagestan was displayed.
Andians - this is a whole group of nationalities, whichIncludes such peoples of Dagestan as Akhvakhtsy, Botlikhs, Tindals, Bagulal, Karatin, Godeberins, Chmalals and, in fact, the Andians themselves. The total number of people of these nationalities is 55-60 thousand people. They live in the highlands of Western Dagestan. Communication takes place in the Andian language with many dialects.
The worship of the Andes depicts customspeoples of Dagestan, since the majority of the indigenous population are Sunni Muslims. Their main occupations were also farming and cattle breeding. From ancient times the houses of these peoples were built of stone. Two-story dwellings were not so many, one-story houses had a rectangular shape. Those Andians, who were engaged in agriculture, developed their agricultural calendar, which helped determine the time of sowing and harvesting of certain plants.
The Dargins are the people of Dagestan, traditionallyinhabiting mountain areas. The language, which would unite all the Dargins, does not exist, there are many variations of the Dargin language. The customs and traditions of the peoples of Dagestan, as well as the Dargins separately, are closely connected with the general social and economic processes that took place in the ancient period of history. They were engaged in activities usual for inhabitants of this territory, that is cattle breeding, agriculture and national crafts. The Dargins were famous for their jewelry and woolen products, weapons. Women worked wool, weaved cloth and carpets.
This people of Dagestan lives in a smallsettlement of Kubachi of Dakhadaevsky area. Their number does not exceed 1900 people. In addition, the Kubachins live in other settlements of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Their native language is Kubachi. The inhabitants of this settlement are mostly artisans. If they grew food or grazed livestock, then it was of an auxiliary nature.
The most common crafts have long beenmetalworking, construction, carving on wood and stone. Women were engaged in knitting, weaving, embroidery, making felt, from which they made shoes. Knowledge and skill in the processing of metal was transferred from father to son. Interesting are the folk dances of Kubachin, who were carefully designed to perform various rituals.
The central part of Mountainous Dagestan is inhabitedone more of the peoples - the Laks. Language is Lakish, religion is Islam. This people has lived in Dagestan since ancient times. Their main occupation is the cultivation of wheat crops (rye, wheat, millet, legumes, barley and others). Animal husbandry was also developed. From the crafts were developed clothwork, jewelry, pottery, stone processing silver and gold embroidery. Laktsy were famous traders, confectioners and acrobats. Rich and epic this people. From mouth to mouth stories were relayed about the great heroes of the past and how they fought against evil.
Lezgins compactly settled on the lands of the SouthDagestan. Their number in this region is 320 thousand people. Communication occurs in the Lezgin language, which is often mutated by local residents. Lezgin's mythology is rich in stories about the gods who controlled nature. But in place of paganism came Christianity, which after a while still replaced Islam.
Like all the peoples of Dagestan, the Lezgins were growingcultivated plants, especially wheat, rice and corn, bred livestock. The Lezgins made wonderful carpets that are known far beyond their borders. Also common trades were weaving, spinning, the manufacture of felt and jewelry. Lezgins are also known for their folk dance - Lezginka, which has become traditional for all the peoples of the Caucasus.
The name of this people comes from thea large settlement - Rutul, located in South Dagestan. These people speak Rutulian, but its dialects are largely different. Tradition is traditionally for this area - Islam. Also there are elements of paganism: the worship of the mountains, the graves of saints. Another feature is that along with Allah, the rutuls recognize one more, their own god, Yinshli.
This people also lives in South Dagestan. Their number is 90 thousand people. Tabasaran is divided into southern and northern dialects. The basic belief is Islam. Classes are also very traditional for this region - livestock and agriculture. Tabasarans are masters in the weaving of carpets, pottery, forging, processing wood and making socks with various patterns. Various genres of folklore, such as mythical tales and ritual songs, are quite developed.
To the Tsez peoples belong Ginuhtsi, Bezhta,cesium, gonzibtsy and hvarshiny. There is no common language, people communicate in their dialects. For these peoples, the blood ties of families, the so-called tukhumas, have long been of great importance. These associations helped each member, they chose the most advantageous party for marriage. Of the products used milk, dried and fresh meat, cereals, flour, fresh and dried fruit. Although these people profess Islam, belief in genies, goblins, devils and witches are preserved.
Thus, Dagestan is the cradlemany peoples. The culture and traditions of the peoples of Dagestan have preserved their distinctive features, which makes them interesting for studying. Their faith united the main features of Islam with the remnants of the pagan past, which makes them unique.