Russia is the largest in terms of territorystate in the world. It is famous for its rich natural resources, diversity of flora and fauna, scientific achievements. A country with such opportunities and needs simply needs a clear control and well-conceived economic policy that will fully ensure financial security and efficiency, as well as create conditions for freedom and growth of this branch of life. The economy in Russia resembles the industrial-agrarian type with elements inherent in postindustry.
According to some indicators, Russia refers todeveloping countries characterized by a low level of socio-economic development, which, as a rule, is often referred to as the Third World. Most of the world's countries can be included in this list, except for the most developed ones. At the same time, the share of services in Russia's gross domestic product is well over 50%, which is typical for developed countries. Although, characterizing the GDP per one unit of the population, Russia lags far behind the European countries. This is primarily due to the fact that our economy is characterized by the distribution economy, as the main model of this sphere of life.
Such a combination of different characteristics is characteristic ofRussia, and gives the right to call its economy a transitional one. Theoretically, in the world there are only two main types of economy: market and distributing. The market economy is based on the exchange of goods and services. Market economy guarantees the freedom of the consumer, which is expressed in the freedom of choice in a large market for both goods and services.
Freedom of entrepreneurship also characterizesmarket economy is that each unit of society can independently dispose of its resources and organize the production process. In turn, private property is the basis of a market economy. Distributing economy - the term is the least common, rather than a market economy. The essence of the distribution economy lies in the service, namely, the person serves the state, society, and for this is rewarded with goods. Hence, good is a material reward for service.
The distribution economy functions according to the principles"Hand-over". This is what distinguishes it qualitatively from the market economy, which, in turn, is based on the mechanism of "buying and selling." Self-regulatory distributing economy was formed in the course of natural historical evolution. It is also based on the principle of self-organization, however, the rules of conduct differ significantly from market ones.
Throughout history, the philosophy of economicsRussia was determined by such actions as donation, tribute, distribution. The basis of all these words is the verb "give." The rules and norms of distributions were formed throughout the whole history of the origin and existence of the system. At first the distributions had the form of a salary to the squad from the prince. Such salaries could include food, weapons, clothing, etc. Then the center of the object, which "fell under the distribution," was the native land. Each prince settled in a separate region, collecting all his entourage. Then the first principles of land distribution began to be formed: either from father to son or depending on the pedigree rank.
During the Soviet era, distributions were expressed in the form ofcash salaries. Every Soviet citizen was entitled to a monetary allowance, which corresponded to his social position and position. Thus, the historically developed principle of distribution - "to each according to rank" - has not lost its universal character. It is this principle that most accurately characterizes the philosophy of the distribution system.
At the same time, when the output was formedand the rules of distribution, there were also the principles of surrender. The basis for handing over is the replenishment of the state treasury. The basis of the national treasury was such elements as the account of tribute, taxes, dues. Everyone invested in the country's budget a share of what they produced. The principles of surrender have been preserved to this day. Only now the treasury is the state budget, and the tribute is the tax.