Thermal power plants are the most popular methodreceiving electricity. More than seventy-five percent of electricity in the Russian Federation is produced precisely by turbines of thermal stations. There are several reasons for choosing TPPs in power engineering: low cost of construction with respect to other types of generation, low cost of energy production due to the use of coal, fuel oil and natural gas, generation of by-products (hot water and steam), construction is possible in any territory, even with difficult terrain and severe climate.
Cons - the deterioration of the environment due to the large amount of carbon dioxide and soot emissions into the atmosphere, low efficiency, ash.
The method of obtaining electricity is simple enough - due to the released energy, the generator shaft rotates, the blades begin to rotate and a current is generated.
The largest thermal power plants in Russia are Surgutskaya-2, Reftinskaya, Kostroma, Surgutskaya-1, and Ryazanskaya GRES. It is deciphered as a state district power station.
Surgutskaya GRES-2 opens the list of "5 large thermal power plants of Russia". The largest producer of electricity in the state. Located in the city of Surgut, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area.
It was put into operation in 1985. The maximum capacity is 6400 MW. The working fuel is oil and natural gas.
The need for construction arose in the secondhalf of the seventies. In less than ten years, Surgut has become the center of oil production. In the shortest possible time, a small working village grew to the size of a whole city. Power outages became permanent.
In the list of "The largest thermal power plants in Russia" the secondthe place is occupied by the Reftinskaya GRES. The station is located a hundred kilometers from Yekaterinburg. This is the largest thermal power plant that operates on Ekibastuz coal. At a kindling fuel oil is used. The total capacity is 3800 MW, the number of power units is 10.
Construction of the second number of the list "The largestTPP of Russia "began in 1963. Commissioning of the first power unit occurred in 1970. The quality of the work was carefully monitored by the local party leadership. Reftinskaya GRES is truly a building of the century. To date, the station generates almost half of the electricity consumed by the Sverdlovsk region.
The third place in the list of "The largest thermal power stations in Russia" is occupied by Kostromskaya GRES. It is located in the heart of the European part of Russia, in Volgorechensk, on the bank of the Volga River.
The station was put into operation in 1969. The main fuel used is natural gas. If necessary, there is a possibility of switching to fuel oil. The total number of power units is nine. The total capacity is 3600 MW.
The length of one of the station's chimneys is 320 meters - it is one of the highest objects of the country.
In the 1960s the region began to develop actively. This was facilitated by the influx of workers and tourists, which was associated with the development of water transport. An acute shortage of power forced the authorities in an accelerated regime to develop and implement a project that was included in the list of "Largest TPPs in Russia".
The station is unique for its time - it introduced the most advanced developments of scientists. Energy is supplied in more than forty regions of the Russian Federation, and also exported to neighboring countries.
In the list of "Largest TPPs of Russia" the list will beincomplete without Surgutskaya GRES-1, which rested comfortably in fourth place. It is located in the city of Surgut, commissioning was carried out in 1972. The maximum capacity of the station is 3268 MW. TPP is certified according to the world standards ISO: 9001.
The fifth place is occupied by the Ryazan state district power station (another name is Novomichurinskaya). Construction began in 1968. Commissioning took place in 1973 in Novomichurinsk.
Six power units produce 3070 MW of electricity. As fuel, brown coal is used. Reserve - gas and fuel oil.
The decoration of the station is two chimneys three hundred and twenty meters in height. And two more metal ones - one hundred and eighty meters. Equipped with a modern vibration damping system.
TPPs remain reliablefor many years. Unobtrusive use guarantees a long service life. Having in reserve such large and powerful stations, you can be confident in a non-volatile future.