The process of raising children in the early childhood periodIt differs in that it is saturated with visual methods. children easily perceive and remember what they see and hear. A visual-effective type of thinking of children allows adults to widely use the example as a method of education, showing and demonstrating to kids the right ways of interacting with each other or manipulating toys.
In the process of forming positive habits,children of early age, the methods of pedagogy should be combined among themselves, affecting the three spheres of the emerging personality: consciousness, emotions and activity. Therefore, when creating hygiene skills in children, first of all, the teacher gives information (or instruction), how it is done, then consolidates knowledge with the help of dolls and using a personal example, which causes interest and curiosity of the child. Then the teacher trains the child's skill with the help of a systematic repetition in the mode of the day.
A sequence in which methodspedagogy is used in practice. So, when teaching children to wash their hands, an adult shows the entire procedure on a doll, rolling up the clothes' sleeves, soaping her hands with soap until the formation of "white gloves" of foam and washing them off with warm water from the tap. At home, adults show how to wipe their hands with a personal towel, and in the kindergarten - a one-time napkin. Under the supervision of the teacher, the toddler independently opens the tap, regulates the water pressure and temperature, soapes and rinses his hands under the water, turns off the tap. After the instruction is mastered, the teacher can use poems about water, which emotionally declares, while the child is washing: "Vodichka, water, wash my face ...". During the day, the adult reminds the child that hands must be washed after walking, after going to the toilet, before eating. Control of the execution of the instruction and the whole action is carried out until the kid starts using this skill on his own, without the reminder of the adult.
Methods of pedagogy of early age have their signs, which allow them to distinguish them from other practical actions of the teacher and pupil:
1) They are binary, i.e. have two parties involved in the interaction: the teacher stimulates and controls the child's activities, and the pupil learns the experience that the adult passes on to him.
2) Economical ways of learning the experience, because give the opportunity to quickly and productively form a new skill.
3) Developing methods, because stimulate and regulate the educational process in accordance with the age of the child, provide an opportunity for an effective increase in skills, habits and habits.
In order to determine how effectivethere is a process of development of the child, teachers use the method of research. This is most often an observation that is carried out on the basis of tables, they indicate the norms of the development of children: their speech, playful or physical activity. Experiment, as a kind of observation, is used when children already have a conscious activity: the ability to collect a pyramid, to find the corresponding hole for a geometric figure, to fold a split image. Such a pedagogical situation is created deliberately by the researcher in order for the child to acquire the acquired skills. In addition, the need to form new skills, which by age should be present in the child's activity, is elucidated.
Methods of pedagogy of early age are thosethe main ways of interaction between the child and the educator, which are the basis for future development. With their help skills, habits, personal qualities are formed, the child's character traits are fixed.