Ambient space people usually callnature or habitat. Most of us got fundamental knowledge about this concept in school lessons: natural science (Grade 3), geography and biology (4), anatomy and chemistry (6). But few understand how these sciences are combined, except that they all belong to the field of natural science. To summarize all the knowledge of man about the surrounding world, one capacious name has been created - the biosphere. Despite years of research and careful study, the planet Earth still gives cause for scientists to think about the processes taking place on it.
What is called the biosphere? Interpretations of this term can be found in the literature quite a lot, and they all differ in content, but almost identical in meaning. Most often the biosphere is called the global ecosystem of the planet, into which man is included as one of the few species. If we translate the name "biosphere" verbatim from the ancient Greek language, then it has two roots. "Sphere" means "area, sphere, sphere", and the root "bios" is translated as "life". It turns out to be a sufficiently capacious and precise name, which, in fact, defines a complex and multifaceted science. VI Vernadsky gives an expanded answer to the question of what is called the biosphere. He defines this concept as a complex of scientific knowledge about the Earth, which includes geography, geochemistry, biology, geology. The biosphere is a collection of shells of the earth, which are united according to the principle of the existence of living beings and their habitat. All spheres are different in composition, functions and properties, but each of them plays a significant role in the existence and evolution of the world around us.
Created a complete system of knowledge philosopher, scientist,geologist and biochemist VI Vernadsky. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, there was a lot of research work on the study of the Earth and the processes taking place on it, but the great Russian scientist succeeded in deepening and generalizing this material. At the beginning of the XIX century, the French naturalist Lamarck defined the initial concept of future science, but did not give it the name. The Austrian paleontologist and geologist Eduard Suess in 1875 proposed the term "biosphere", which is used until today. He will define this science as knowledge of all life on our planet. Only 50 years later Vernadsky will prove the interconnection of living organisms and inorganic substances, their circulation. What is called the biosphere at the present stage? This is one of the shells of the planet in which natural elements of different origins interact, it is their totality that creates a unique, balanced system.
The outer air shell of planet Earth. Most of its mass is concentrated near the surface itself, but it extends to a height of three thousand kilometers. The atmosphere is the lightest of all shells, it does not leave the surface only due to the force of gravity of the planet, but with increasing altitude its layers are gradually discharged. The ozone layer provides protection from radioactive sun exposure, reducing the level of ultraviolet that hits the ground. The composition of the atmosphere includes gases: carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, which ensure the existence of living organisms.
The biosphere of the Earth includes a part of the watershell of the planet. Its composition varies according to the aggregate state of the substance. The hydrosphere combines all the water resources on the planet, which can be in liquid, gaseous and solid form. Surface layers of the World Ocean serve to redistribute the heat coming from the Sun through the atmosphere. Of particular importance is water during the cycle of substances in nature, since it is the most mobile fraction. Organisms of the biosphere have completely mastered the water element, they can be found in the deepest bottom depressions of the World Ocean and in the Arctic glaciers. The chemical composition of the hydrosphere includes the following main elements: magnesium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur, carbon, calcium, etc.
In our solar system, not all planets havea hard shell, the Earth in this case is an exception. The lithosphere is a huge mass of rock (solid) rocks that form part of the land and serve as a bed of the World Ocean. The thickness of this shell of the Earth is from 70 to 250 kilometers, its composition is most diverse in the number of chemical elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, oxygen, magnesium, potassium, sodium, etc.), which are necessary for the existence of all living organisms. This geosphere is characterized by the smallest width of the spread of life. The most developed is the upper layer of the lithosphere, which is several meters. As the depth increases, the temperature and density of the hard shell increase, which along with the absence of light does not allow the existence of living organisms.
This geosphere unites all the Earth's shells(hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere) by the presence of living matter in them. For all mankind, the role of the biosphere is difficult to overestimate, it is the environment and source of occurrence. This is a complex system of interrelations that cause the possibility of the existence of any organism due to the exchange of matter and energy. More than 40 chemical elements participate in the process of cycling, which constantly occurs between organic and inorganic compounds. The main source of energy is the Sun. The earth is located at the optimal distance from the star and is equipped with a protective barrier in the form of an atmosphere. Therefore, along with living matter, solar energy is an important biochemical factor of the existence of the biosphere. Due to the influence of a number of factors, the processes that take place have a complete cyclic appearance, they provide a circulation of matter between the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and living organisms.
When analyzing the length of the biosphere shell,see its uneven distribution. The lower boundary is located in the layers of the lithosphere, it does not fall below the value of 4 km. The upper layer of the earth's crust - the soil - is the most saturated in terms of density of living matter content by a layer of the biosphere. The hydrosphere, which includes the expanses of the World Ocean, rivers, lakes, bogs, glaciers is fully included in the "living shell". The highest concentrations of organisms are observed in the surface and coastal layers of water bodies, but life also exists in deep-sea depressions, at a maximum depth of more than 11 km, and in bottom sediments. The upper limit of the biosphere is at a distance of 20 km from the surface. The atmosphere limits the "living layer" to an ozone shield, above which organisms will be destroyed by short-wave ultraviolet radiation. Thus, the maximum concentration of living matter is at the boundaries of the lithosphere and the atmosphere.
The doctrine of the biosphere was created by V.I. Vernadsky, he also defined the key role of organisms in the formation and functioning of the "living shell" of the Earth. Earlier, other scientists came to similar conclusions, but the Russian natural scientist was able to prove the necessity of the presence of inorganic compounds in the structure, which also participate in the general cycle. In his opinion, the biosphere has the following composition:
Billions of years ago formed a solid shellThe earth is the lithosphere. The further stage of the formation of what is called the biosphere was due to geological processes that moved tectonic plates, caused volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, etc. After the formation of stable geological forms, the turn of the emergence of living organisms has come. They were able to develop through active releases of various biochemical elements that occurred during the formation of the lithosphere. Living matter for several million years created acceptable conditions for life. Due to its gradual evolution, the gas composition of the atmosphere was formed. The constant interaction of organic and inorganic compounds under the influence of the energy of the Sun enabled the living substance to spread throughout the entire planet and significantly change its appearance.
The first living organisms on Earth appeared in thehydrosphere, their gradual access to land lasted a rather long period. The development of another shell of the biosphere - the lithosphere, caused the formation of the ozone layer. Due to the process of photosynthesis, a huge biological mass absorbed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and liberated oxygen. In this case, the living substance uses an almost inexhaustible source of energy - the Sun. Aerobic organisms, which lacked organic substances in the thickness of the hydrosphere, reached the surface of the land and significantly accelerated the evolution process due to the energy cycle. At present, the "living shell" of the Earth is in a state of stable equilibrium, but mankind has an increasingly negative impact on it. A new sphere of the earth is being created - the noosphere, it implies a more harmonious cooperation of man and nature, but this is a separate and very interesting topic for study. The biosphere continues to function, despite a significant decrease in biomass, the "living sheath" seeks to compensate for harm caused by human activities. As history shows, this process can take a considerable time.
The main component in the structure of the biosphere -biomass. It performs all the biochemical functions of the "living shell", maintains its composition in a state of equilibrium, ensures the process of circulation of substances and energy. The gas function maintains the optimum composition of the atmosphere. It is carried out through the photosynthesis of plants that release oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide. Living organisms, during expiration and during decomposition, release CO2. Gas exchange occurs constantly, inorganiccompounds take part in it during the passage of chemical reactions. The energy function is to assimilate and transform the biomass (plant) of an external source - sunlight. Concentration function ensures the accumulation of nutrients. All organisms in the process of vital activity accumulate the necessary level of the content of biochemical elements, which after their death returns to the biosphere in the form of organic and inorganic compounds. Oxidation-reduction function is a biochemical reaction. It occurs in the process of vital activity of a living organism and is a necessary link in the cycle of substances.
All living organisms are distributed over terrestrial spheresunevenly. The greatest concentration of biomass is observed at the junctions of the planet's geospheres. This is due to the formation of optimal conditions for life (temperature, humidity, pressure, the presence of biochemical compounds). The biomass composition is also not the same. On land, plants have an advantage, in the hydrosphere the basis of living matter is made up of animals. The density of biomass depends on the geographical location, depth of habitat in the lithosphere and height - in the atmosphere. The number of species of plants and animals is very large, but the biosphere is the habitat of all organisms. Biology, as a separate science, largely explains all the processes taking place in it. This is the origin, reproduction, migration of all types of biomass.
The significance and scale of the Earth's "living shell"will ensure its continued study of new generations of naturalists. The system is unique in its integrity, dynamic development, balance. As its main and most surprising feature can be distinguished stability and the ability to recover. The number of disasters during the existence of the biosphere as a living film of the planet is enormous. They led to the extinction of most of the biomass, significantly altered the external appearance of the planet, corrected the processes occurring on its surface and in the nucleus. But after each impact the biosphere was restored in a modified form, adapting to or exerting negative influence. That is why the biosphere of the earth is a living organism that can independently regulate all processes occurring in nature.
Every modern child in elementary schoolstudies such an object as natural science (3rd grade). In these lessons, the little person is explained what the surrounding world is and by what rules it exists. Perhaps, it is necessary to change the program a little and teach the children to respect and love nature, then mankind will be able to create a new geosphere. All the knowledge about the biosphere accumulated over the centuries must be applied for its further development, which will imply the union of nature and man. While it is not too late to correct the damage done to the environment, people should think about the fact that the Earth's "living shell" can independently recover, but at the same time it can eliminate an object that permanently damages its integrity and harmony.