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The Paris Peace Treaty of 1856: conditions and cancellation

The Russo-English world, the Treaty of Paris, or the Treaty of Paris of 1856 - such a name has a document that ceased the Crimean War of 1853-1856.

The treaty was signed within the framework of the ParisCongress, which was officially opened on 13 February. The Ottoman Empire, England, Sardinia, Prussia, Austria and France, on the one hand, and Russia on the other, took part in the work.

During the years 1856-1871. The Russian Empire fought for the abolition of restrictions on this agreement. The government did not like the fact that the Black Sea border remains open for sudden precipitation. After long negotiations, the partial abolition of articles of the Paris Peace Treaty, namely the lifting of the ban on the maintenance of the fleet in the Black Sea, took place thanks to the London Convention in 1871.

the Paris Peace Treaty of 1856

Crimean War

After the dissolution of all diplomatic andeconomic relations between Russia and Turkey in 1853, the first occupies the Danubian principalities. The Turkish government did not tolerate such an attitude towards itself and on October 4 of the same year declares war. The Russian army was able to push the Turkish troops away from the banks of the Danube, and also to repel their offensive in the territory of Transcaucasia. She also coped with the enemy on the sea, which was heading to the very center of events. After such actions, Britain and France join the war. They successfully pass through the Black Sea and surround the army of the enemy. March 27, England declares war on Russia, France does the same day. A month later, the Anglo-French army is trying to land near Odessa, after firing at a settlement of 350 guns. September 8, 1854, the same troops are smashing Russia under the river Alma and stop in the Crimea. The siege of Sevastopol begins on October 17. Locations of the deployment of troops numbered about 30 thousand people; The settlement suffered from 5 large-scale bombardments. After the conquest by France of the southern part of Sevastopol, the Russian army retreats. Throughout the siege (349 days), the empire in every way tries to distract the enemy, but attempts are unsuccessful. Sevastopol is under the control of Anglo-French troops.

The Paris Peace Treaty of 1856, signedMarch 18, was completing military operations. It provided for the liberation of the Black Sea (becomes neutral), the arch to the minimum level of the Russian fleet. Similar obligations were imposed on Turkey. In addition, the Empire remains without the Danube estuary, part of Bessarabia, power in Serbia, Wallachia and Moldova.

cancellation of articles of the Parisian peace treaty

The Paris Peace Treaty

Because of the tragic resolution for RussiaCrimean conflict, it becomes infringed in its rights and interests. Surprisingly, the territorial boundaries of the Empire were practically unaffected. She gave some islands, principalities and the mouth of the Danube in return for cities such as Sevastopol, Kinburn and others. The only downside was that the territories obtained as a result of the peace agreement were besieged by the Allied forces. The most striking thing about Russia was that the Paris Peace Treaty of 1856 restricted its possessions on the Black Sea, forbidding it to have a fleet, arsenals, and fortresses.

The agreement affected the public European situation, the foundations of which were laid down in the Vienna treaties. The leader of the whole of Europe was Paris, and the former Petersburg was given the second place.

cancellation of the Paris peace treaty

The terms of the Paris Peace Treaty

The Paris Treaty included 34 mandatory and 1 temporary article. The following are the basic conditions:

  1. Between the countries that conclude the treaty peace and friendliness reign supreme.
  2. Territories won during the conflict will be released and transferred to the original owners.
  3. Russia undertakes to return Kars and other parts of the Ottoman possessions, which are now occupied by the troops.
  4. France and Great Britain pledge to return the captured seaports and cities to Sevastopol: Sevastopol, Evpatoria and others occupied by the Anglo-French army.
  5. Russia, France, Great Britain and Sardinia should present their forgiveness to those who in some way were guilty of the outbreak of hostilities.
  6. All parties undertake to immediately return prisoners of war.
  7. The Paris Peace Treaty of 1856 obliges the countries that signed the document to assist the allies in the event of an enemy attack; carefully observe the conditions without violating them.
  8. If there is a conflict or disagreement between any countries that have concluded a treatise, others do not use force to resolve it, giving the opportunity to settle everything peacefully.
  9. None of the rulers interfere in the foreign and domestic policies of the neighboring state.
  10. The entrance to the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles remains closed.
  11. The Black Sea becomes neutral; it is prohibited to have a fleet.
  12. Trade is permitted on the shores of the Black Sea, which is subordinated only to the relevant department.
  13. It is forbidden to have an arsenal on the Black Sea.
  14. The number and strength of the courts are determined by this agreement and can not be exceeded.
  15. Duties for navigation on the Danube are abolished.
  16. The approved group will monitor the cleaning of the river banks, etc.
  17. The created commission should subsequently compose rules for shipping and cargo transportation, remove obstacles for convenient patrolling of the sea territory.
  18. The seaboard commission will be given the necessary power to ensure that the work that it undertakes to fulfill was completed after 2 years.
  19. Each country is allowed to have 2 light vessels on the banks of the Danube.
  20. The border of Russia near Bessarabia shifts for convenient navigation on the Danube.
  21. Those territories that the Russian Empire will liberate will be annexed to Moldova.
  22. No one has the right to interfere in the internal politics of the Vala and Moldavian principality.
  23. The Ottoman Empire undertakes not to interfere inthe policy of the Allied countries, leaving behind them the right to independent rule; leaves complete freedom of choice of religion, trade, shipping and general legislation.

conditions of the Paris peace treaty

The abolition of the Paris Peace Treaty

After the adoption of the Russian-English world, Russiatried to soften the restrictions, thereby regaining the Black Sea and the ability to have a fleet. That is why diplomatic relations flourish at this time. During the years 1856-1871. The empire had good relations with France: it planned to get help from Russia in the Austro-French conflict, and the latter expected France's influence on the eastern issue.

The Paris Conference, which lasted until 1863year, became decisive in Russian-French relations. The countries have become much closer and jointly solved some issues. March 1859 was important for France, because a secret treaty was concluded, according to which in the event of war with Austria, the Empire promised to remain neutral. The deterioration of relations is observed during the Polish uprising. As a result of these actions, Russia is establishing relations with Prussia.

After the strengthening of the German Empire in 1872Berlin hosts 3 emperors. A convention is starting, in which Austria is also joining. According to the Berlin Treaty, adopted at this time, the abolition of articles of the Paris Peace Treaty is becoming a matter of time for Russia. She regains her navy on the Black Sea and the lost territories.

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