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Special psychology. Methods and methods of research.

Special psychology is a branch of psychology,which deals with the study of special conditions of childhood and adolescence under the influence of certain groups of factors. Such conditions manifest themselves in the slowed or expressed peculiar psychosocial development of the child, which significantly hinders his socio-psychological adaptation, self-education and subsequent professional definition.

Special psychology studiesvarious variants of pathology of mental development and problems of abnormal development of the psyche. Special attention is paid to the study of the individual characteristics of mentally retarded children, with lesions of the cerebral cortex and disruption of the analyzer (hearing, speech). It has been reliably studied that the primary defect causes significant secondary changes, for example deafness, can cause changes in mental development, reorganization of life position, perception, thinking, relationships with others. Based on the data of special psychology, special training programs are created for people with developmental anomalies. The main task that special psychology sets itself is the formation of an adequate personality through the use of special methods and methods of education and training, as a result of which there is a restructuring and replacement of the impaired functions.

The object of special psychology is manwith disabilities in development, and its tasks are to study the features and patterns of mental development of people with various psychological and physical abnormalities in conditions of corrective education. Special psychology has several specific areas that determine its activities. Surpedochology studies the psychology of the deaf and hard of hearing people, typhlopsychology studies the psychology and behavior of blind and visually impaired people, oligophrenic psychology studies the psychology of mentally retarded people, and logpsychology is designed to help people with speech disorders. This direction, like the psychology of the view, is of particular importance to people even with the slightest disruption, since it represents almost the only way to adapt them to the outside world.

Special psychology together with a specialpedagogy are the main components of the complex scientific discipline - defectology, which deals with the study of the developmental features of children with mental and physical disabilities and their subsequent education and upbringing. Special psychology has special special methods of research, most often it uses:

  • Group and individual laboratory psychological experiments. They represent an active intervention of the researcher in the vital activity of the ward with the purpose of creating conditions that reveal any psychological regularity.
  • Observation. Observation is the purposeful perception of the ward.
  • Study of the products of activity. By this influence is meant the analysis of letters, hand-made articles or children's drawings.
  • Questioning. Tasks in this version of the study are presented in the form of questions.
  • Projective methods. Designed for personal diagnosis.
  • Educational experiments. They are natural experiments characterized by a purposeful formation of psychological processes.
  • Conditioned Reflex Techniques.

Each of these techniques is used in a specialpsychology for certain purposes, taking into account external factors and individual characteristics of a person. They are quite in demand among people suffering from various physical and mental disabilities. Like the psychology of the view, special psychology is now rising to a whole new level. Who knows, maybe already in the near future thanks to it, people with mental and physical disabilities will become full members of our society.

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