The famous revolutionary Dybenko Pavel Efimovichwas born on February 28, 1889 in the small Chernigov village of Lyudkovo. His parents were ordinary peasants in the central part of Russia. The social and financial situation of the family left an imprint on the life of the boy. He received his primary education in a rural school. Then followed three years in the city school. Further study for a peasant son was simply too expensive.
Work Dybenko Pavel Efimovich began at the age of 17. In Lithuanian Novoaleksandrovsk he entered the service in the local treasury. However, for a long time the young man did not stay there. He was fired because of revolutionary hobbies. In 1907, the young man took a fateful decision and joined the Bolshevik circle (in the party formally from 1912). On the eve of the first Russian revolution ended, but the underground organizations continued their activity.
Since 1908, Dybenko Pavel Efimovich lived inRiga. In 1911 he began to serve in the Baltic Fleet. The need to give up military duty was not attracted by Dybenko - he tried to hide, but the deviator was arrested and was forcefully sent to the recruiting station. So the young Bolshevik became a sailor. The place of his service was the island of Kotlin, where the city of Kronstadt was located.
Dybenko visited the crews of several ships, inparticular training ship "Dvina" and battleship "Emperor Paul I". The sailor worked as an electrician, and later was promoted to non-commissioned officers. In 1913 he took part in a foreign campaign, visited England, France and Norway.
In 1914, the First World War began. Dybenko Pavel Efimovich was in the active squadron and took part in several military sorties in the Baltic Sea. Several years of service did not dull his revolutionary moods. On the contrary, as a naval cadre he proved to be a very valuable agitator for the Bolshevik party. At the same time, Dybenko was under secret surveillance of the secret police. He was in a "risk group" and that is why he was decommissioned from his ship when the Baltic Fleet experienced the insurrection of sailors on the battleship Gangut for the first time in the war.
Well known to the revolutionary, Riga wasthe place where Dybenko Pavel Efimovich was sent. The military's biography could remain connected exclusively with the fleet, but now he had to find a use on the land front. After three months of service, he received a term in the Helsingfors prison for defeatist agitation. The conclusion was short-lived. Soon Dybenko was returned to the fleet as a battler. Despite all his previous misadventures, the Bolshevik continued his revolutionary activities.
In 1917 Pavel Dybenko was in the thick of itevents. After the appearance of the Provisional Government, he joined the Helsingfors Council, where he was a deputy from the fleet. As an ardent Bolshevik, he had the most radical views. It was Pavel Dybenko who conducted the most propaganda activity in the Baltic Fleet during the anti-government speech of his party in July 1917. That summer, most of the Bolsheviks were arrested, and Lenin fled and hid in the Spill.
I went to prison and Dybenko Pavel Efimovich. A brief biography of this revolutionary is full of episodes of arrests and conclusions. This time he was in the Cross, where Trotsky was at the same time. In early September, among other Bolsheviks Dybenko was released. The Provisional Government decided that the marginal party lost its influence and lost support among the masses. This point of view was a fatal error.
On the night when supporters of Lenin seizedpower in Petrograd, Dybenko supervised the transfer of revolutionary-minded sailors from Kronstadt to the capital. The merits of the Bolshevik before the new Soviet power were significant. After the October Revolution, he was immediately put into the Council of People's Commissars, where he became a commissar for maritime affairs.
The Baltic Fleet also remembered how muchmade for the coup Dybenko Pavel Efimovich. The date of birth of the new state practically coincided with the convocation of the Constituent Assembly. Dybenko was elected as his deputy as a delegate from the Baltic Fleet. On the day of the convocation of the Constituent Assembly, the Bolshevik directed a large group of sailors who in fact dispersed this democratically elected body.
The Bolsheviks who came to power were in an extremelypredicament. On the one hand, the white movement gained momentum, and on the other, until the signing of the Brest Peace the war with the Germans continued. In early 1918, they continued their offensive in the Baltics. The seamen were sent across the interveners, led by Dybenko Pavel Efimovich. The personal life of the revolutionary was marked on the eve of a joyful event: he married Alexandra Kollontai, a companion who, in the future, became famous in the diplomatic field.
However, for family affairs there was no time left. Detachment Dybenko collided with the Germans near Narva. Seamen, inferior to the enemy in all respects, the city left. Soon the detachment was disarmed by their own. For a mistake, Dybenko was expelled from the party (restored in 1922). In a sense, the revolutionary was lucky - he was not shot, but was sent to an underground job in Odessa (the former merit was affected).
In the fall of 1918 Pavel Dybenko was in the Ukrainianthe Soviet army. He headed the partisan division, which included supporters of Nestor Makhno. The most important success of this formation was the participation in the seizure of the Crimea. Division Dybenko was the first to establish control over the key Perekop Isthmus. However, those successes were variable. Soon the supporters of the Bolsheviks had to retreat.
Dybenko Pavel Efimovich also left. The photo of the commander again appeared in the Soviet newspapers - he returned to Moscow and became one of the first listeners of the Academy of the Red Army's General Staff, which had just opened. The situation on the fronts was restless, and Dybenko, who was not fully educated, was again sent to the front. At the end of 1919, he took part in the liberation of Tsaritsyn, where Stalin and the future marshals Budenny and Egorov also celebrated.
The new 1920's Dybenko met on the road. His division pursued the retreating Denikin. By spring the commander had reached the Caucasus. Then Pavel Efimovich returned to the Crimea, where, at his last gasp, the remnants of the Whites under the command of Wrangel resisted. In September 1920, the Civil War participant returned to the academy left just before that.
A few months later, during the nextparty congress, the famous Kronstadt uprising of sailors broke out. Dybenko knew this contingent very well. Therefore it is not surprising that it was his party who sent to suppress the rebellion of those unhappy with the privations and unjustified expectations of the sailors. Then Dybenko came under the command of Tukhachevsky. In April 1921, both military commanders again together - this time they suppressed the peasant uprising of the Antonovites in Tambov province.
After returning to a peaceful life Dybenko PavelEfimovich and Kollontai began to occupy all kinds of leading posts. Her husband is in the army, his wife is in the party and diplomatic service. During the 20's and 30's. Dybenko headed many military formations in the Red Army.
The fate of the old Bolshevik has developed on the knurled. When Stalin began purging in the Red Army, Dybenko at first appeared as a reliable performer of terror. He repressed the wards in the Leningrad Military District, where he was commander. The height of Dyubenko's service was his participation in the trial of Marshal Tukhachevsky in the summer of 1937. And just a few months after this episode, he himself was removed from all his posts. Several staff reshuffles followed. As a result, Dybenko came to work in the commissariat of the forestry industry and began to direct wood harvesting in the Gulag. In February 1938, he was arrested.
Pavel Dybenko, according to the then-traditional tradition, was chargedin espionage for foreign intelligence and even in connections with Tukhachevsky, whom he himself helped to imprison. The famous military commander of the Civil War was shot on July 29, 1938. He was rehabilitated after the 20th Party Congress in 1956.