Commander of the British Navy Horatio Nelsonis one of the most famous and illustrious British military. During his career, he went through several campaigns and bloody battles, defending the honor and interests of the kingdom.
The future admiral Horatio Nelson was born in 1758year in the family of a priest. His father had 11 children, but this did not stop him from raising them all in an atmosphere of love and attention. Edmund Nelson tried to accustom Horatio to physical work and exercises. His son was sickly, but at the same time he had an energetic character.
12-year-old Horatio decided to follow in his footstepsuncle and become a sailor. In 1771 he was in the ocean for the first time. His ship "Triumph" went to the West Indies (Caribbean islands), where the boy got his first professional experience.
In 1777 the young Horatio Nelson finallyconnected his life with the fleet, successfully passing the examinations for the rank of lieutenant. He was still drawn to the western seas, where Great Britain had many colonies. However, it was at this time that the kingdom was faced with a serious problem. The American colonies declared war on the mother country, wishing to gain independence. In 1776 they formed the United States of America.
The colonists were supported by Spain, whichcontinent had great possessions. In response, Great Britain sent a fleet to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. One of those ships was Horatio Nelson. He took part in the landing at the mouth of the San Juan River. The operation was unsuccessful. The British failed to gain a foothold in the territory of the modern country of Nicaragua. In addition, Nelson during the campaign was sent to Jamaica. Perhaps this saved his life, since most of the British left on the mainland died.
Soon the war for US independence was over. However, Horatio Nelson's ship remained in the West Indies. The UK still had colonies in this region. For several years the officer was engaged in regulating trade with the Americans. At this time, a new market was created, the rules of which dictated the US.
In the late 80's Nelson returned to his homeland. But he did not manage a peaceful life. In France, a revolution broke out, overthrew the monarchy. The king was executed, and the supporters of the republic turned out to be in power. Most European monarchies were horrified by these events. The next few years they alternately created anti-French coalitions.
All these military campaigns were held and Horatio Nelson. The officer's biography is a battle path full of suffering. In 1794, in Corsica, he injured his eye. A few years later, Nelson lost his right hand. It happened in the battle in the Canary Islands, where the British fought against the Spaniards, who supported the French.
In battle near Cape St. Vincent in Portugal, Nelson onhis initiative led his own ship out of the general squadron and undertook a risky maneuver that helped the British to win a confident victory. The brave officer led the capture of two Spanish ships, which were taken to boarding. After this battle in 1797, Nelson became a Rear Admiral. He was not even 40 years old yet.
In 1798, Nelson received his commanda whole squadron. The authorities did not in vain entrust to him the fleet - this officer was noted for courage, sharp mind and ability to take a strong-willed decision at the most difficult moment. Nevertheless, he was not deprived of some sailors' superstitions. On the mast of the flagship ship Horatio Nelson hung a horseshoe - a symbol of luck. Sailors from any country have always been very fond of signs. What is only the international custom of launching the ship to the water!
Meanwhile, France is increasingly popularrecruited a successful and brave military leader Napoleon Bonaparte. He did not want to depend on the republican government. In 1798, the general organized the Egyptian campaign. His goal was to break the ties between Great Britain and the colonies in India. Formally, Egypt was part of the Ottoman Empire, but the main confrontation in the region flared up between French and British troops.
When the British squadron entered the Mediterranean Seaand headed toward the exotic country, on the mast of the flagship ship Horatio Nelson, the horseshoe still wore. He hoped that he would not fail his country in such a crucial moment for the whole people.
The decisive sea battle in the Egyptian campaignwas the battle of Abukira, which lasted from 1 to 3 August 1798. Three previous months, the British fleet hastily pursued French ships carrying an expeditionary corps under the command of Bonaparte. Napoleon managed to land in Egypt, after which he went deep into the country. The fleet anchored on the shore of the Abukiri Gulf near the famous Alexandria. At the disposal of Commander Francois De Bruet there were 13 battleships and 4 frigates. It was a formidable force. Admiral Horatio Nelson sailed to Egypt with a small quantitative lag - 14 battleships and sloops.
The main reason for the failure of the French was thatthey allowed the British to maneuver and surround the flotilla from two sides - from the sea and land. In addition, De Bruet was too self-righteous. He believed that the British would not dare attack his large fleet and did not even prepare guns that could repel the first attack. In the heat of the battle, the commander was killed. The mast of Horatio Nelson and his whole ship were also constantly under fire. But this time the Admiral was lucky. He not only survived, but also won the battle. The French fleet was destroyed. Napoleon was cut off on someone else's land, which predetermined the failure of his adventurous campaign.
Egyptian campaign again rallied the Europeanmonarchy. They created a new coalition against the republic. Meanwhile, Napoleon, who returned to his homeland, was in the center of a coup d'état. At first he became the first consul, and in 1804 - the emperor.
All the beginning of the XIX century passed under the signNapoleonic wars. France continued to be supported by Spain. Bonaparte planned to arrange an amphibious assault in Britain. But he was hindered by the fleet, which reliably guarded the English Channel. Therefore, the admiral instructed Admiral Villeneuve to conduct a deceptive maneuver, heading to the Caribbean Sea, where there were English colonies.
However, the plan did not work.The British, not wanting to leave their native island unprotected, remained in the strait. Napoleon abandoned the original plan and decided to attack the kingdom of Naples in Italy. Meanwhile, the French fleet returned to Spain, where it was blocked by Nelson in Cadiz.
Napoleon ordered Villeneuve to break throughsurroundings and go to the Mediterranean to help him in Italy. The admiral tried to carry out the order, but failed. His fleet was destroyed by the British, led by Horatio Nelson. The biography of this brave officer is full of episodes with his wounds. But this time, on the first day of the decisive Battle of Trafalgar, he was shot by a sniper from a distance of 15 meters.
This happened on October 21, 1805.The death of the admiral only angered the British. In a rage, they destroyed 22 ships without losing a single one. Every deceased national hero was grieved by every contemporary. Horatio Nelson personified all the ideals of an impeccable officer.
In honor of his last victory, one of the centralLondon area was renamed Trafalgar. The center of its architectural ensemble is the Column of Nelson, established there in 1843 in memory of the talented admiral.