Ethnic and national culture - conceptsvarious. The first enters into the structure of the second. In other words, the culture of a developed nation always includes an ethnic component - the culture of one or several nationalities that formed it (the nation). This component reflects the centuries-old experience of life and the rational arrangement and management of the economy in accordance with these natural and climatic conditions.
Ethnic culture is manifested in featuresfolklore, food, clothing, folk medicine and crafts and other spheres of life. Most of its features are preserved in villages, rather than in cities. Ethnic culture is the most ancient cultural layer. It is she who bears all the traditions of her ancestors.
Ethnic culture is focused on preservingattachment to the past, endowed with continuity and conservatism. Some of its elements indicate the identity of the people. For example, such symbols include a sarafan and a samovar from Russians, spaghetti from Italians, a plaid skirt - from Scots, ghost stories and oat porridge - from the English. Similar features are present in the peoples of all countries.
It should be noted that to the people'sculture is not reduced to national. The latter is formed on the basis of education, writing and philosophy, science and art, literature, technological and socio-political development of the people. At the same time, the comprehension of the national culture is realized through self-education and education. Knowledge requires special intellectual effort.
Ethnic culture in its turn is a basefor development. It forms the national language, it becomes a source of literary subjects and images, architectural styles, musical rhythms. The traditions that have been built in it for centuries influence the uniqueness and uniqueness of the whole nation as a whole.
Together with this, gravitating toward isolation,adherence to the remnants of the past, ethnic culture often does not meet modern standards of life. She does not know the changes, does not accept anything alien and unfamiliar, preserving its uniqueness. At the same time, the national culture is characterized by constant changes and innovations. It absorbs the achievements of other nations.
Such discrepancies in history spawned periods,when there was practically a gap between the culturally developed educated stratum of the population and the "lower classes" - adherents of the ethnos. So, for example, in Russia in the 18-19 centuries between the common people (peasants) and noble nobility formed a real cultural abyss. Often a Russian nobleman could easily understand a foreigner, rather than his serf. Moreover, in the "supreme" society, almost all aristocrats, fluent in French, spoke Russian with great difficulty.
To eliminate this "abyss" a great influence(Pushkin, who managed to combine in his poetry aristocratic education and a simple people's principle, other poets and writers), the Slavophils, who passionately advocated the protection of the Russian ethnos - the people's spirit, intellectuals, who were part of the people.
Today many people talk about the need to revive"Primordially Russian culture". However, understanding the role and place of the ethnos, it becomes clear that this can lead to a decline in the cultural development of the nation as a whole. From the life of the people, signs of antiquity, more and more often new technologies enter rural life. Ethnic culture is increasingly being moved to museums.
Of course, it is necessary to know and study the national features inherent in one's own nation. However, one must live in a modern culture.
National progress is not always regarded as solid acquisitions and victories. Together with the achievements there are contradictions and losses.