The goal is the defining element of the pedagogicalsystem, without which pedagogical activity loses all meaning. It depends on it the content and means of obtaining the results. In pedagogy, the goal is a mental representation of what the results of the upbringing process should be, and also about the qualities that need to be formed in a person.
The principles of the pedagogical process are definedin such a way that education is always purposeful, and without a clear idea of the goal, pedagogical activity is unlikely to be effective. Consider the main points of goal-setting, as well as the hierarchy of goals in pedagogy.
So, the goal setting in pedagogy isconscious process, during which the teacher identifies and sets the goals and objectives of his activities. As a rule, the choice of the goals of education or upbringing is not voluntary. There is a clearly formulated methodology of pedagogy, as well as certain ideas about public values. In pedagogical literature, there are several positions on the definition of the goals of upbringing and education.
So, according to the first opinion, educational purposesdepend on religious beliefs about life and its meaning, about the appointment of a person who are given a religion and have an absolute character. The second position implies that the goal setting in pedagogy depends on the internal needs of the individual, as well as on his individual nature. Representatives of the materialist approach argue that the needs are influenced by society and its values in all sorts of aspects, including technical, socio-economic, cultural and other.
The goal-setting in pedagogy is based ona certain hierarchical system, where the highest level is the state goals, reflecting the representation of society about the citizen and about the person as a whole. Such goals are developed by specialists and adopted by the government. The next step is taken by the goal-standards, that is, those goals that are reflected in educational standards and programs. Among them - the goals of education in secondary school, as well as, for example, the goal of teaching mathematics or raising children of a specific age. Below all - the purpose of the topic of the lesson or after-hour activities.
Thus, the goal setting in pedagogyis based on educational standards - the requirements for the level and content of students' knowledge, which describe the minimum skills and knowledge of the graduate. The standards ensure the quality of education and its compliance with international standards.
In the history of society, the goals of upbringing change withthe change of philosophical concepts, psychological and pedagogical theories, social requirements for education. For example, in the United States the concept of adaptation of a person to life is preserved, which was developed back in the 1920s. It is partially changed, but the main goal remains the same: the education of a responsible citizen, an effective worker, a good family man and a reasonable consumer. Later such programs as "education in the spirit of peace" or "education for survival" were developed. Such diversity indicates the existence of a variety of approaches to goal-setting.
The goal-setting, as well as the functionspedagogical process, consists in the fact that goals are formulated in general, as a pedagogical creed, very often turning into generalized reasoning and blurred ideas about a particular goal. It is this generalization that makes it difficult to quickly develop the processes of education and training programs. Teachers-theoreticians propose to solve the problem by introducing the concept of "pedagogical technology", which will formulate the goals in a diagnostic way with words that describe the student's plans of action.