Choosing a specialty is considered one of the main tasks that have to be addressed at a young age. To determine in this matter help activities for career guidance.
A person who chooses a specialty,called the optant (from the Latin word optacio - "election, desire"). As a result of his actions, a sufficiently clear and realistic idea of the professional community to which he will relate himself in the future should be formed. As the results of various studies show, children at a young age, for example, know only 20-25 specialties. In this regard, vocational guidance of adolescents is often characterized by a spontaneous nature. The study of the motivation for choosing one or another specialty has shown that a significant role in this belongs to others. Thus, about 25% prefer the profession under the influence of a more independent friend, 17% are guided by the advice of adults, 9% - information from the media. The choice of another 9% is due to various non-essential factors (for example, the remoteness of the university from the house is insignificant). Only 40% of schoolchildren are guided by the content of future work.
Choosing a specialty, a person at a young ageusually primarily takes into account their own interests, inclinations. However, at the same time, the correspondence of personal qualities to the requirements of one or another field of activity is not taken into account. In particular, intellectual potential, psycho-physiological possibilities, etc. are not taken into account. For many children, the situation in which it is necessary to make such a choice becomes stressful. This is mainly due to the fact that, on the one hand, it is still difficult for a teenager to take responsibility for his actions. On the other hand, he simply does not know how to do it properly, how to make the specialty completely coincide with his goals and interests.
For the right choice it is necessary to studythe most common, sought-after specialties. In addition, you need to familiarize yourself with the requirements that apply to candidates. It is also important to study your own characteristics, the specifics of thinking, character, temperament, and the nervous system. The findings should be compared with the requirements of a particular field of activity. It should be noted that the earlier the work on career guidance is done, the more effective it will be in the end.
It is necessary for societylimited (in view of the division of labor) sphere of application of the spiritual and physical powers of man. It gives an opportunity to receive funds for existence and development. A profession is a group of related specialties. For example, there are turner-bakers, turners, universals, etc. These specialties are united in a group called the "turning profession".
Today there is a huge amountspecialties. For career guidance for schoolchildren to be useful for children, it is necessary to clearly delineate the directions of their possible activities in the future. Classification is carried out according to various criteria. For example, it may be a breakdown by industry, skill level, psychological requirements, etc. You can determine the direction of interests by going through a career counseling test. Currently, a variety of questionnaires have been developed. The career counseling test will help to identify a person's abilities in a particular field, the priority of a specific field of activity. Quite common is the division into types of human interactions with:
In each of these areas there are specific specialties, from which the child can choose the most suitable.
If the questionnaire for career counseling has shownadherence of the child to this area of activity, then, most likely, he has some success in such subjects as biology, anatomy, zoology, botany, physiology. Feature of the category of specialties "man-nature" is that all of them are non-standard, changeable and have a certain complexity. Their transformation is subject to the internal laws of the natural environment. In this regard, the occupation on career guidance in this case should include assignments to identify initiative, independence in solving specific tasks. A specialist in this field should not only know a lot, but also have the ability to foresee those or other changes. Here, among other things, creative skills, responsiveness, caring are important. The specialist should remember that many changes in organisms can become irreversible.
Vocational guidance of students to a certain extentshould prepare them for possible difficulties in this or that sphere. For example, when speaking about specialties like "man-nature", it is necessary to say that many of them are related to technology. For example, plant growers, agronomists use a variety of equipment. A complex technique is also present in the work of microbiologists. A similar situation with cattle-breeding specialties. At present, they are increasingly being converted to an industrial basis. Within the framework of the team they also are engaged in establishing interpersonal relations. In addition, they often have to delve into the subtleties of accounting, analyze the economic results of their own activities. Some specialties require artistic skills. For example, this is typical for such professions, as florists, landscapers.
When there are activities for career counseling,children should see not only the positive, but also the negative aspects of a particular profession. It is necessary that they understand and appreciate their personal, real attitude to future activity. For example, for specialties such as "man-nature" it is important to distinguish between ordinary love of the environment from the desire to make something important, necessary, solve some problem, improve the state of the system. Choosing such a profession, you need to know that for a specialist, nature is not a resting place. She acts as a workshop, where he will give his strength and time.
In it, the work of specialists is connected with mechanisms,machines, energy in its various forms. This direction is suitable for children who are successful in physics, mathematics, drawing, chemistry. Technical direction should be considered widely, not to reduce it to one "glands". Specialties can also be associated with non-metallic objects. For example, it can be food raw materials, fabrics, plastic, semi-finished products. The peculiarity of objects of labor is that they can be accurately measured, characterized by many features. Accordingly, when they move, process, change from a specialist, certainty will be required.
Youth guidance should showopportunities of a particular field of activity. For example, the technical direction is a huge field for invention and innovation. Therefore, the key condition for success in this area is the availability of a desire for modeling, the ability to disconnect and connect objects and their elements. At the same time, it is possible to invent not only instruments and other objects of labor, but also technologies, methods of performing operations. Another important condition for success in this area is the presence of high discipline.
Specialties in this field are associated witheducation, training, guidance, service. Such activities are usually chosen by those children who are successful in such subjects as literature, history, social studies, etc. A key feature of this sphere is that the essence of labor in it lies in the interaction between people. Another important feature is that the specialist requires a double preparation:
This area of activity is related to processingdata, presented in the form of formulas, figures, texts. Inherent elements of the modern world are the various sign systems. Every day, every day actively used all kinds of drawings, topographic maps, charts, tables, conditional signals, formulas and so on. From specialists engaged in the sphere of sign systems, special skills and inclinations are required. In the process of work, it is necessary to perform control, accounting, and processing of information. Specialists often need to develop new sign systems.
All specialties in this sphere are conditionalare divided into several categories. Criteria are historically isolated types of artistic representation of real events. Thus, the following professions are identified:
These categories do not have clear boundaries, theyare in one way or another interaction. As one of the specialties of the specialties of this sphere is that most of the labor costs of employees are hidden from outsiders. In many cases, even special measures are taken to create the effect of ease, ease of the result of the activity. For example, the performance of an artist on stage can last several minutes. But that it took place, he every day for several hours improves his skills, rehearses, observes the regime.
As mentioned above, today there isa lot of manuals and teaching materials for both children and adults. Meanwhile, their study does not always bring the desired result. Many children not only do not form a clear idea of the specialties and possible spheres of activity, but, conversely, the problem of choice is only aggravated. This is why the day of vocational guidance is held in educational institutions. Extra-curricular activities to explain to children the specifics of labor relations in one sphere or another are not sufficiently developed today. Vocational guidance for schoolchildren is a powerful and effective tool that helps to solve the actual problem for them. Its goal is to help in building the children's sustainable need for self-development and realizing their potential in the labor sphere. One of the key tasks is the creation of the necessary conditions for the independent activity of each child. Vocational guidance for schoolchildren allows children to identify their individual characteristics, propensities, predisposition to any activity.
Career guidance in grade 9 suggests a phased approach.familiarization with different areas of work. In the form of theoretical knowledge, games, creative exercises, children's self-awareness develops. In the course of interaction with teachers and other specialists, a stable system of values is being formed. Children begin to model their future. These are the main tasks that are carried out by career counseling. 11 class - the period when children come close to the issue of choice. By this time, most of them should already have clear ideas about their future, make up an "ideal image" of the specialist.
At the first stage, preparations forfamiliarization with the material relating to the labor sphere. It includes the stages of the formation of professional activity, the methods of choosing a specialty. Children get acquainted with key concepts, definitions, with sources of information about the future labor sphere.
Topics on career counseling are not confined solely to the description of those or other specialties. The process includes:
Vocational guidance for high school students suggests thatBy the end of the year, children will learn the key educational skills. They include, in particular, the ability to cognize oneself, the features of the emotional-volitional sphere, character, temperament. Students make a plan for self-control, development of will, regulation of emotions. This will allow them to form skills to build their lives at their own discretion and desire. In the next stage, career guidance for high school students includes acquaintance with the requirements of certain work activities, qualification characteristics, the availability of which will allow them to master the specialty and achieve certain successes in the chosen sphere of employment. At the third stage, a concrete decision is made, information on the ways and possibilities for obtaining the appropriate education is studied.
Vocational guidance for high school students includesacquaintance with the psychology of labor in this or that sphere. This is due to the physiological and age characteristics of children. In the process of acquaintance with the main areas of activity, learners master the essence of the work in this or that specialty. As a result, children realize that such a person's mutual correspondence is his future specialty.
Vocational guidance of senior pupils is carried out according to the plan, developed in accordance with:
When developing the plan, the Methodological Recommendations of the Ministry of Education and Science and the Requirements for the design and content of curricula for additional education are taken into account. education of children.
As part of the career counseling program, children are offered to study the following concepts:
Children are also explained the features of communication inwork. In addition, the psychological characteristics of work under extreme conditions are described. In conclusion, it is expected to sum up the results of extracurricular activities, summarize the results, bring them to children, parents and teachers.
For conducting vocational guidance classes inan educational institution should be allocated a spacious room in which children could receive theoretical knowledge. In addition, a room for creative activity is being arranged. In the educational institution there should be a library with a reading room where you can find all the necessary literature on the topics of interest, as well as a computer classroom, a room for viewing video. Children are invited to participate on a voluntary basis. As practice shows, there are a lot of people who want to attend vocational guidance classes. Children bring their friends and like-minded people, which promotes free communication, enthusiasm and joint activity.
The plan is designed for sequential passagestages and obtaining the necessary knowledge. This practice allows children to learn socially important aspects. In particular, they receive skills and skills in applied creativity, research work. Children study the features of interpersonal communication in the work collective, the psychological specifics of this or that activity. As a result, high school students expand their horizons in the sphere of occupations, receive information about the educational institutions of their city or district.
Undoubtedly, much will depend on the teacher. Therefore, he must be prepared to perform a variety of tasks, to present to himself the corresponding clear requirements. Its main task is to attract children, to make them want to understand the world of professions, to reveal their potential, to evaluate it in relation to one or another specialty. Regular extra-curricular activities will make it possible to study the labor sphere from various sides. The presence of this knowledge will allow the high school student without any problems to choose the profession in which he can fully realize himself.
Work should bring a personsatisfaction. To do this, it is necessary to cultivate a realistic idea of the level of claims for recognition in society. Simply put, one should not expect much praise than a person deserves according to the actual results of his activities. Often, young professionals receive disproportionate skills and recognition. This can have an extremely negative impact on their future activities. Thus, a person who has developed an unrealistic idea of claims, dismisses the idea that loud success is absent for reasons hidden in himself. Such a person begins to explain the failure by the actions of others (around everyone is hampered, envied, slows down activity, etc.). To avoid such situations, as part of career counseling programs, children are explained all aspects of one or another of their work activities.
When choosing a specialty, the child must be readynot only to success, but also to the difficulties that he will face. He must have the appropriate skills, skills, knowledge, psychological qualities. When a graduate enters the institute or other specialized institution, he must have a clear idea of his future. Classes on career counseling help to model the events of your life. The most important role in this process belongs to adults. The profession has a significant impact on a person's life outside the work collective. This impact should be positive.