The past of Russia is big and glorious. As gratitude to our ancestors for the formation of a united people on September 21, the whole country celebrates the victory of Dmitry Donskoy over Mamai.
A big role in the history of Russia is given toconfrontation between Dmitry Donskoy and Mamai. The memory day of the Kulikovo battle is celebrated annually on the battlefield. This date is important, because it led to the liberation from the yoke of the horde, united the Russian lands and formed a single nation.
Realizing his power, Dmitry I Ivanovich (later Donskoy) in 1374 breaks the agreement with the Horde and refuses to increase the tribute.
The day of remembrance of the Battle of Kulikovo in the Russian Federation is an awareness of oneself as a united Russian people.
Then the events developed very rapidly. Opponents have made new friends. So, on the side of the Horde was the Lithuanian kingdom. But the strength of the enemy did not frighten the Russians. An army was assembled, headed by excellent generals and strategists.
Mamai was preparing to attack, but minor battles, such as on the River Vozha in 1378, weakened his army. The full-scale offensive had to be postponed all the time.
Problems arose not only with the khan. The Moscow prince stubbornly sought support. Tver refused to help him. Ryazan played a double role. Prince Oleg supported Mamai, but told about the plans of the Tatars to other princes.
On the Don side stoodNizhny Novgorod-Suzdal and Smolensk princedoms. Under the leadership of brave warlords, thousands of men from different lands boldly marched into battle. That is why the day of the memory of the Battle of Kulikovo in Russia is a holiday of every patriot who is ready to defend his homeland from invaders.
September 7, 1380, the troops approached the riverDon. The places where the fighting took place had both pluses and minuses. The advantage is that the Mongols would have lost a lot of energy, crossing the river. The drawback is that the rear was open to supporters of Mamaia, who could appear at any moment. The lightning decision was made: the squad crossed the Don and defeated the bridges.
All signs foreshadowed victory. This inspired the soldiers. The prince's brave deed meant a lot to them. He put on simple armor and stood shoulder to shoulder with his brethren in a large regiment.
The fight started the next morning. It is September 8 - the day of the memory of the Battle of Kulikovo. Briefly describe the course of maneuvers can be as follows: the forces were built according to the classical system. The army was headed by a large regiment, where the main force was concentrated. On the left and right hands stood one more group of troops. The fourth part of the army was in ambush.
Horde tried to break through the left regiment, but to helpcame out soldiers who have so far been hiding in the forest. Broken and frightened Tatars (their attacks reflected each time with more force) believed that God turned away from them. Complete victory belonged to Moscow.
For a long time the Golden Horde reigned on Russian lands. But in the middle of the fourteenth century the power of the khans began to fade. The peak was the defeat at Kulikovo Field. Events that changed history occurred in 1380. Since the summer Mamai was preparing for war. On September 8, the two sides met. The victory was won by Donskoy. Later, these events were described in the annals. But if the battle began on September 8, why do we celebrate today the Day of Memory of the Kulikovo Battle on September 21?
The answer is simple. Chroniclers noted that the duel took place at the Nativity of the Virgin (today it is 21.09), which according to the old style fell on September 8 (according to the Julian calendar). Then it is logical to note that to honor military glory it would be necessary on the 16th. After all, 8 days is added when translating dates into the old style. But the researchers made a mistake. They added 13 days, guided by the rules of the Orthodox Church. From this it is clear that the real date of victory is September 16.
One of the attractions of the Russianculture - the state museum reserve "Kulikovo Field", which is located in the village. Monastyrschino of the Tula region. It is located in the open air. The maximum of visitors takes in September. Then the field turns into an arena of military operations. Its main feature is theatrical performances.
Now the museum unites several expositions. One of them is the church of Sergius of Radonezh, which is characterized by a traditional architectural ensemble. This miracle worker and sage blessed Donskoi for war. Another link is a complex in the village of Monastyrshchina, where allegedly buried dead soldiers.
Russians are proud of their history. Therefore, every year on the field where the battle between Dmitry Donskoy and Mamai took place, mass meetings are held, known as the "Kulikovo Field" festival. Welcome the fans of history Tula region. The action is trying to fully reflect the times of the Golden Horde and Moscow Rus. On the Day of Memory of the Kulikovo Battle, this part of modern Russia is transformed into medieval lands.
Every year the festival plan is updated. But traditionally the celebration begins with worship in the church of St. Sergius of Radonezh.
The festival started in 1997 and has since been held without interruption.
It is very important that the museum not only entertains, but alsoteaches. The House of the Battle of Kulikovo organizes the festival in such a way as to convey to the guests the maximum of information from the great past. The event is distinguished by a wide program. Hundreds of men who studied martial arts compete in dexterity. Various contests for the best armor, suits and weapons of those times are held. Show their skills archers, fencers. There are knight tournaments.
Help to plunge into the atmosphere of the XIV century horsefights, infantry collisions and paired fights of Russian combatants and Horde. For the audience, there are always open fairs, which surprise with the abundance of souvenirs. In addition, you can visit dozens of master classes. The field kitchen works.
The festival is the best place to hold the Kulikovo Battle Memorial Day. Positive impressions and pleasant mood are guaranteed.
Many sources say that the meeting of twotroops occurred between the rivers Don and Nepryadva. But in addition to the obelisk-contemporary there is nothing. Usually on such places mounds, temples, monasteries reduced. The work of archaeologists was also unsuccessful. For tens of years of excavation, only a few confirmations of the theory that it was in this area that the famous battle was held. But they did not become absolute proof. Arrowheads could belong to hunters, and chainmail older than two centuries from these events. No burial places of enemies found.
When the memory day of the Battle of Kulikovo is celebrated, everyone knows everything, but very few people know that there are documents proving that the Kimovsky district of the Tula region is far from the massacre Mamai.
Scientists have found many explanations for anomalies. For example, the lack of weapons and armor is interpreted as follows: all weapons were removed from the battlefield because of what was expensive and rare. But there are dozens of facts that can not be explained.