Evolutionary process implies constantrenovation, the emergence of useful attributes, their fixation in the organisms of living beings. And these changes do not necessarily occur at the genetic level. Very important are idioadaptations - the adaptation of animals, plants and microorganisms to specific habitat conditions, environmental factors and physical characteristics of the range.
The mechanism of occurrence of adaptations - deepthe evolutionary process that forms the necessary attributes over time, gradually. Fixing the necessary characteristics in the genome of living beings for manifestation in future generations.
Very often you can meet the bodyvegetable or animal origin, which has some unusual feature in the structure, behavior or appearance. For example, stickers, which in appearance do not differ in any way from the twigs of the tree. Or a fly-fly fly that has exactly the same color as a wasp. Among the plants, thick-stemmed fleshy cacti, stilts and air roots, root-supports can serve as examples.
In any case, all these are adaptations to the environmentHabitat, environmental conditions or protect yourself from other creatures. Such phenomena are very important, because they are important stages of the evolutionary process. The mechanism of the emergence of adaptations always has as its basis precisely genetic samples and fixations of important and necessary genes that encode the manifestation of a particular trait. For example, the gene responsible for changing the color of the chameleon, was formed in the genome of these animals several thousand years ago and is still inherited by all future generations.
Adaptations in plants are an integral part of their life. All of them can be divided into several main groups.
The mechanism of occurrence of the devices is responsibleall the same basis - evolutionary changes with fixing and passing by inheritance necessary in specific conditions of the characteristics. Therefore, if any plant has adapted to the territory, environmental conditions, temperature, then all of its future generations it will necessarily pass all the features for a comfortable existence.
In the temperature regime in whichtoo high values and constant sunny days, adaptations in plants have a pronounced character, aimed at reducing the evaporation of moisture. And also to maintain body weight and nutrients along with bound water inside the stem.
For this, the leaf plates are reduced tominimum, or completely mutated. The most typical example is desert plants - cacti. The cruel conditions of existence under the scorching hot sun forced these plants to transform the leaves into prickly needles, and the stem into a thick fleshy trunk filled with parenchyma cells (the main tissue) with a large amount of bound and free water.
The mechanism of the emergence of cactus adaptationsvery clearly shows how skillful the plants can be in their adaptations. Thanks to spines, the plant does not evaporate water from the surface of the leaves, which means it saves a large amount of it. In addition, in the stem, modified for thick fleshy trunk, there is an accumulation of a number of substances that hold water. For example, they accumulate:
Also the mechanism of occurrence of adaptationscactus includes the development of compounds of hormonal nature, which will inhibit the action of growth hormones (gibberellins, auxins). This allows plants to quickly stop their growth in the face of unfavorable conditions that last for a long time.
Another bright example of adaptations in plantsis their ability to adapt to pollinators. For example, wind-pollinated forms form seeds dry and light, which will simply be dissipated even by weakly moving air.
If the plant is insect-pollinated, it forms flowers of a certain structure and color:
The structure of the flower itself can also be adapted to a pollinator. There are plants pollinated by a strictly defined species of birds or insects.
Cross-pollinating or self-pollinatingthe plants in the flower structure have long stamens and a deeply planted pestle so that the pollen falls on the stigma. Each of these adaptations plays an important role in reproduction and is also inherited in the genome.
In tropical and subtropical habitatsoften the phenomenon of excess air humidity. After all, it is known that in some areas, tropical showers can go for more than a month. Of course, such excess water is harmful to plants. Therefore, some species have formed certain adaptations, minimizing such an impact of nature. These are hydatodes - water estuaries, increasing the amount of water released by the plant. It leaves whole drops. This phenomenon has become known as guttation.
Also, adaptations to excess moisture in plants are large leaf plates with a huge number of stomata. Accordingly, transpiration is also enhanced.
Representatives of the fauna are forced not onlyto adjust to the conditions of the environment, but also to protect themselves from the attack of stronger individuals for whom they are food. This led to the formation of several types of adaptations in animals:
A vivid example of adaptations with the help ofchanges in the shape of the body, limbs and integuments are birds (feathers, keel, light skeleton, streamlined body shape). Also aquatic mammals and fish that have tails and fins, smooth surface, lack of powerful coat. But they have air bubbles, a side line (in fish), membranes on the paws (waterfowl), fins (marine mammals).
Patronizing coloring is manifested in manyanimals, both terrestrial and aquatic. For example, green grasshoppers, hiding in the grass, sea needles, hiding themselves in algae. Chameleons, moths (rod-shaped caterpillars), Kalima (a butterfly imitating a leaf), variegated partridges, white and gray color of hares and many other examples reflecting devices in animals.
Mimicry, that is, imitation in order to protect oneself from eating and attack, is typical for, for example, flies-murmurs (reminiscent of osu), some species of snakes copying venomous snakes and so on.
Precautionary coloring of insects and animalsis aimed at an honest warning about the inedibility of the species, its virulence. An example are poisonous snakes, wasps, bees, bumblebees, ladybugs and other representatives. These are very common adaptations in animals.
Repulsive behavior is a hissing, growling,bouncing aside, releasing biological fluids (octopus and squid ink, skunks). This also includes the features of some animals that in the cold season form flocks to facilitate the production of food.
All these adaptations have an evolutionarily formed and genetically entrenched mechanism of education.
The mechanism of occurrence of adaptations of a polar bear was formed in conditions of extremely cold places of inhabits. All of its adaptations are aimed specifically at preserving heat and extracting food. These include:
Thanks to their adaptations, a polar bear can not be afraid of even the harshest cold. A white color allows him to sneak up to the source of food - seals.
The brightest representative is, of course,the mole and all its relatives (kokors, mole rats and others). Therefore, for his example, consider adaptations. The mechanism of mole adaptations is associated with the underground habitat, devoid of some important abiotic factors: light, sufficient moisture, heat. Therefore, the adaptation of this animal is as follows:
These include, first of all, camels,their various kinds. The mechanism of the emergence of camel adaptations was formed in conditions of lack of moisture and high temperatures. Adaptations of the following nature:
All these adaptations make for camels desert conditions quite comfortable and acceptable for life.