In the XIII century, the country was exhausted under the humiliatingyoke, which imposed the Mongol conquest. The country was divided into smaller and larger principalities, which were at enmity between themselves. The process of uniting the Russian lands was slow and dragged on for two centuries. Who in history has shown himself as a collector of Russian lands? It is possible to single out several outstanding princes who transformed the fragmented Russia into an integral Russia.
Dying, the great Alexander Nevsky singled out hisThe youngest two-year-old son Daniil has a tiny lot, in the center of which stood Moscow. Only at the age of fifteen, Daniel Alexandrovich began to reign in his lands with great care, trying to live peacefully with his neighbors, because he was weak.
Contemporaries appreciated the peaceful life of the Moscowprincipality, and people were drawn into it. Moscow slowly overgrew merchant shops, handicraft workshops. Only towards the end of his life Daniel Alexandrovich attached Kolomna, which opened the way to the Volga, to its lands, and Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, who was the "key" to the so many degrees of Vladimir. We can assume that this was the first collector of Russian lands. He died at the very beginning of the sixteenth century and left behind five sons who continued his policy.
Prince Ivan was the fourth son of Daniel, and hopeshe practically did not have a prince in Moscow. But his three older brothers - Yuri, Boris and Athanasius - died and left no heirs. Thus, in 1325, at forty-two, Prince Ivan Danilovich began reigning in the Moscow lands. At this age princes have often died, and Prince Ivan's life has just begun. At that time no one knew that he was a collector of Russian lands.
Two years later, the Horde were killed in Tver. This local uprising brought a punitive Mongolian campaign to Russia. Prince Ivan was forced to go to suppress the insurrection in Tver and as a result received Novgorod and Kostroma, as well as the throne of the Grand Duke Vladimir.
Conditionally Ivan Kalita became the senior prince over allprinces of Russia, this right gave him the reign of Vladimir. Firmly, by any means established the order of Ivan Kalita. The collector of Russian lands united in Moscow the ecclesiastical authority, which formerly was in Vladimir, with the secular. For this purpose in 1326 he laid for the Metropolitan Peter the temple of the Mother of God. And after Kalita's death, the Orthodox department remained in Moscow. I liked it Russian princes or did not like it, but Moscow united around the whole north-east.
He avoided all means of conflict withHorde, because it violated the peaceful course of life. The tribute was entrusted to him to collect from all over Russia and send it to the Horde after the Tver insurrection. But it was difficult. Everyone, under any pretext, especially Novgorod, tried to avoid paying tribute. It was necessary to frighten the invasion, then to please the gifts of the obstinate. It was especially difficult when the Horde demanded extraordinary payments. In addition, it was necessary to restore order throughout the territory and severely deal with the robbers who attacked both the baggage allowance and the civilians. Thus, the number of robberies has decreased, the life of ordinary people has become easier.
Its nickname is "Kalita" (a purse, a sack withmoney) Prince Ivan received for the ability to dispose of the money, which he willingly distributed to the poor at the exit from their chambers. He was immediately surrounded by a crowd, and for each was a coin.
The prince was married twice. The first wife was Elena, presumably the daughter of a Smolensk prince. The second wife was Ulyana, to whom Ivan left a rich inheritance and gold jewelry of his first wife.
And it was established from 1328 to 1340 in the countrylong-awaited peace. There were no more devastating raids of "filthy". There were built and grew cities, a population that nobody destroyed and did not take in full, increased, peaceful and quiet life was established, forces were accumulated to fight the Mongols. Prince Ivan Kalita concluded dynastic marriages of sons and daughters with Yaroslavl, Rostov and Belozersk princes in order to dispose of their possessions. And the heir of Simeon Ivanovich married to Gedimin's daughter, in order to ensure the security of the western borders. Prince Ivan Danilovich is also a collector of Russian lands. This is certain.
At this time, Ivan Danilovich strengthened Moscow. On Borovitsky hill he built five cathedrals. Metropolitan Peter himself laid the foundation stone of the Assumption Cathedral. So Moscow turned into a religious capital.
In 1339 Ivan Danilovich built a strongoak Kremlin. This was a very important matter. After all, the Mongols were very suspicious of any attempts to strengthen cities. Before his death, the prince took tonsure and left his elder son Simeon as heir. Already after the repose of Ivan Kalita, in 1340, his sons completed the decorations of churches with a multicolored painting, ordered jewelers ritual utensils, poured new bells into the belfry.
The policy pursued by Ivan Kalita,the collector of Russian lands, briefly, continued his sons Semyon Proud and Ivan the Red. They learned everything from their father - to get on with neighbors and the Horde, to pacify the unruly with gifts or threats. In Russia, the world as a whole reigned. And so time passed. 1359 came up. For thirty years of the world a whole generation of people grew up, who did not know the raids of the Mongols. But the prince, whose glory does not fade in the centuries, Dmitry Ivanovich, could not reconcile with the economic and political dependence of Russia on the Horde. The Mongols no longer had the same unity. They were torn apart by internal contradictions. Dmitry Ivanovich decided to take advantage of the right moment and overthrow the yoke.
He won in the early autumn of 1380bloody Kulikovo battle, defeating the Mamaevo army. But the time of complete liberation of Rus has not yet come. Two years later, the troops of Tokhtamish ravaged and burned Moscow, and again the Moscow princes, humbling and roaming, went to the Horde khans with gifts and received a label for reign.
The son of Prince Basil the Dark, who was blinded intime of internecine wars other Russian princes who had high ambitions, since eight years, sat next to his father and was his co-regent. It was a tough, even cruel school. Prince Vasily himself was a worthless ruler, but his son turned out to be a powerful statesman.
Grandiose and large-scale work began in 1495. All the remains of the walls of the old Kremlin were razed, new towers and walls were built, the Neglinka river was blocked.
It turned into a lake that was guarded by the Kremlinfrom the north from fires and enemies. We dug a ditch along the eastern wall, and water from the lake went there. The Kremlin has become an impregnable island. In 1479 a new Uspensky Cathedral was built inside the Kremlin. Then the Italians built the Faceted Chamber. It was intended for receptions of foreign ambassadors. Several churches and temples were built, and the Kremlin became completely unrecognizable.
The great Moscow prince was married twice. Within his family there were constant strife. Ivan Young, son of the first wife, was heir. But he fiercely hated the second wife of his father, Sophia Palaeologus, and her sons. The new Greek family answered him with the same hatred.
In 1490 Ivan the Young fell ill. The Greek woman gave him her doctor, and he died. Ivan III made his heir the son of Ivan the Young, Dmitry. But Basil, the eldest son of Sophia, threatened his father that he would flee to Lithuania and start a war with him for the throne. Ivan III surrendered and bequeathed the throne to Basil. After the death of his father, Vasily sent all the relatives to jail, where they died. But before that, a significant event for Russia will take place.
Since 1476, Ivan III stopped paying tribute to the Horde. The Horde worried and began to gather strength in the campaign against Moscow. In 1480, the troops of the Great Horde, which was divided by this time into three khanates, who were at war with each other under the leadership of Khan Ahmad, approached almost a hundred kilometers to Moscow. It was late autumn. Ordyntsy several times tried to cross the river Ugra, but their attempts were repulsed by artillery, which Ivan III reorganized and made appropriate to all the best examples.
The army was commanded by Ivan Molodoy. Ivan III himself did not go to the active army, but prepared and supplied ammunition, fodder and food. For several weeks two armies stood on different shores of the Ugra. The frosts hit, and Khan Akhmat led his army back. So ended the 240-year-old yoke.
When the Moscow princes showed everything Russiansociety, what they want and can liberate the country from the Mongol yoke, then all sympathies were on their side. But the end of the shameful dependence required to tighten the power inside the state, so that it would not crumble again into small parts. But this is a task that will be addressed by the next generation. And while the victory was expressed in a new title - the sovereign of all Russia.