This history is old, it has been more than one and a half centuries,But geographical names and countries, the mention of which is inevitable in the presentation of its plot, cause certain associations with the present. Crimea, Turkey, Russia, France, Britain - these are the scenery for the dramatic events that developed in the middle of the XIX century. All wars end in peace, even the longest and most bloody. Another question is how much its terms are beneficial to one country and humiliating for others. The Paris world was the result of the Crimean War, which was fought against Russia by the combined forces of France, Britain and Turkey.
In the middle of the century, Europe was experiencing a seriousa crisis. National movements within Austria and Prussia could lead to the disintegration of these states, the movement of borders and the collapse of the ruling dynasties. To help the Austrian emperor, Russian Tsar Nicholas I sent an army that stabilized the situation. It seemed that for a long time the world would come, but it turned out otherwise.
Revolutionary movements arose in Wallachia andOf Moldova. After the Russian and Turkish troops entered these areas, a number of controversial issues arose about the boundaries of protectorates, the rights of religious communities and Holy Places, which ultimately meant a conflict concerning the spheres of influence of the powers adjacent to the Black Sea basin. In addition to directly interested major countries, other states that were not interested in losing their geopolitical benefits - France, Britain and Prussia (quickly forgot about gratitude for the miraculous salvation of their monarch) were involved in it. The Russian delegation, led by Prince. Menshikov did not show the necessary degree of diplomacy, put forward ultimatum demands, and, having failed to achieve the result, left Constantinople. In early June, there was an invasion of the forty-thousandth Russian corps into the Danube principalities. In the autumn, the fleets of France and Britain conducted their warships through the Dardanelles, providing Turkey with military assistance. On November 30, the squadron commanded by Ushakov dealt a preemptive blow to the Turkish naval forces in Sinope, and the Western powers directly interfered in the conflict, which was a surprise for Nicholas I. Contrary to the aspirations, the Turkish army was well prepared. In 1854 the Crimean War began.
To wage a land war with Russia to the West(the memory was still fresh Napoleon's campaign), and the strategic intention was to strike at the most vulnerable place - in the Crimea, using the advantage of naval forces. The weakly developed transport infrastructure that linked the peninsula with the central provinces played into the hands of the Anglo-French-Turkish coalition, which made it difficult to supply troops and reinforcements. The landing site was Yevpatoria, then a serious clash took place on the river Alma. It turned out that the Russian troops were not adequately prepared for the war in terms of weapons, and in terms of training. They had to retreat to Sevastopol, whose siege lasted a year. In the conditions of a shortage of ammunition, food and other resources, the Russian command succeeded in establishing the defense of the city, building fortifications in a short time (initially there were almost no such fortifications). Meanwhile, the forces of the Western allies suffered from the diseases and bold attacks of the defenders of Sevastopol. As was later noted by the negotiators, the signing of the Paris Peace took place with the invisible participation of Admiral Nakhimov, who died heroically during the defense of the city.
Ultimately, Russia in the Crimean Warsuffered a military defeat. In 1855, during the defense of Sevastopol, Emperor Nicholas I died, and the throne was inherited by Alexander II. The new autocrat understood that the fighting, despite brilliant successes in the Asian theater, is unfavorable for Russia. The death of Kornilov and Nakhimov actually beheaded the command, further retention of the city became problematic. In 1856, Sevastopol was occupied by the troops of the Western coalition. The leaders of Britain, France and Turkey drafted an agreement consisting of four points, which was adopted by Alexander II. The treaty itself, known as the "Paris Peace", was signed on March 30, 1856. It should be noted that the victorious countries, worn out by a long military campaign, very costly and bloody, took care of the acceptability of its items for Russia. This contributed to the victorious actions of our army in the Asian theater, in particular, the successful assault on the fortress of Kare. The conditions of the Paris peace primarily concerned relations with Turkey, which undertook to secure the rights of the Christian population on its territory, neutrality of the Black Sea water area, the departure of two hundred square miles of territory in its favor and the inviolability of its borders.
At first sight, a fair demanddemilitarization of the Black Sea coast in order to avoid further conflicts between countries in fact contributed to the strengthening of Turkey's position in the region, as the Ottoman Empire reserved the right to have fleets in the Mediterranean and Marmara Seas. The Paris world also included an annex (convention) relating to straits through which foreign warships could not pass in peacetime.
Any military defeat leads to a restrictionthe capabilities of the defeated party. The Paris world for a long time changed the balance of power in Europe, formed after the signing of the Vienna treaties (1815), and not in favor of Russia. The war as a whole revealed many shortcomings and flaws in the organization of army and naval construction, which prompted the Russian leadership to carry out a number of reforms. After another, this time victorious, Russian-Turkish war (1877-1878), all restrictions of sovereignty and territorial losses were leveled. Thus ended the Paris world. The year 1878 was the date of the signing of the Berlin Treaty, which restored the regional dominance of Russia on the Black Sea.