France is a country that is ahead of others. It was here that the first revolutions took place, and not only social, but also literary, which influenced the development of art in the whole world. French writers and poets sought unprecedented heights. It is also interesting that it was in France that the work of many geniuses was evaluated even during life. Today we will talk about the most important writers and poets of the XIX - early XX century, and also open the veil over the interesting moments of their lives.
It is unlikely that other French poets can catch upwith the scope of Victor Hugo. The writer, who was not afraid to raise acute social themes in his novels, and at the same time a romantic poet, he lived a long life full of creative successes. Hugo as a writer was not simply recognized during his lifetime - he got rich by doing this craft.
After the "Cathedral of the Notre Dame" his gloryonly increased. Are there many writers in the world who could live their own name for 4 years on the street? At the 79th year of life (on Victor Hugo's birthday), a triumphal arch was erected on Aylau Avenue - in fact, under the windows of the writer. Through her on that day passed 600,000 admirers of his talent. Soon the street was renamed to avenue Victor-Hugo.
After himself, Victor Marie Hugo left not onlyfine works and a great legacy, 50,000 francs of which was bequeathed to the poor, but also a strange point in the will. He ordered the renaming of the capital of France - Paris - in Hugopolis. Actually, this is the only item that was not executed.
When Victor Hugo struggled with the classicistcriticism, Theophile Gautier was one of his most vivid and loyal supporters. French poets have received an excellent replenishment of their ranks: Gauthier not only flawlessly owned the technique of writing, but also opened a new era in the art of France, which later influenced the whole world.
Having withstood his first collection in the best traditionsromantic style, Theophile Gauthier at the same time ruled out of the verses traditional themes and changed the vector of poetry. He did not write about the beauty of nature, eternal love and politics. Moreover, the poet proclaimed the technical complexity of the verse as the most important component. This meant that his poems, while remaining romantic in form, were in fact not theirs - the feelings gave way to form.
In the last collection, "Enamels and cameos", whichconsider the pinnacle of the work of Theophilus Gautier, and the Manifesto of the Parnassian School, Art, also entered. He proclaimed the principle of "art for the sake of art", which the French poets took unconditionally.
French poet Arthur Rambo inspired hislife and poetry is not one generation. At the youthful age, he several times fled from home to Paris, where he met Paul Verlaine, sending him a poem "Drunken ship." The friendly connection between the poets very soon turned into a love affair. This is what caused Verlaine to leave the family.
During the lifetime of Rimbaud only 2 collections of poetry andseparately - the debut verse "Drunken ship", which immediately brought him recognition. It is interesting that the poet's career was very short: he wrote all the poems at the age of 15 to 21 years. And after Arthur Rimbaud simply refused to write. Totally. And he became a trader, selling spices, weapons and ... people for the rest of his life.
Famous French poets Paul Eluard and GuillaumeApollinaire are the recognized heirs of Arthur Rimbaud. His work and person inspired Henry Miller on the essay "The Time of the Killers", and Patti Smith constantly speaks about the poet and quotes his poems.
French poets of the late XIX century elected PaulVerlena his "king", but the king in it was not enough: a rowdy and a reveler, Verlaine described the unsightly side of life - dirt, darkness, sins and passions. One of the "fathers" of impressionism and symbolism in literature, the poet wrote poetry, the beauty of the sound of which can not convey any translation.
No matter how vicious the French poet was, Rimbaudplayed a huge role in his future destiny. After meeting young Arthur, Paul took him under his care. He searched the poet for housing, even for a while rented a room for him, although he was not wealthy. Their love affair lasted for several years: after Verlaine left the family, they traveled, drank and indulged as soon as they could.
When Rimbaud decided to leave his lover,Verlaine shot his wrist. Although the victim refused the application, Paul Verlaine was sentenced to two years in prison. After that, he did not recover. Because of the impossibility to abandon the society of Arthur Rimbaud Verlaine was never able to return to his wife - she obtained a divorce and ruined him completely.
The son of a Polish aristocrat, born in Rome,Guillaume Apollinaire belongs to France. It was in Paris that he lived youth and mature years, until his death. Like other French poets of the time, Apollinaire sought new forms and opportunities, sought to outrageous - and succeeded in this.
After the publication of prose works in the spirit ofa deliberate immorality and a mini-collection of poetry Bestiary, or the cortege of Orpheus, published in 1911, Guillaume Apollinaire publishes the first full-fledged poetic collection of Alcohol (1913), which immediately attracted attention by the lack of grammar, baroque images and tones.
The collection "Caligram" went even further - allthe verses that came into this collection are written in an amazing way: the lines of the works are arranged in different silhouettes. The view of the reader is a woman in a hat, a pigeon that flies above the fountain, a vase of flowers ... This form conveyed the essence of the verse. The method, by the way, is far from new - to give the poems the form was begun by the English in the XVII century, but at that moment Apollinaire anticipated the appearance of the "automatic writing", which the surrealists loved so much.
The term "surrealism" belongs precisely to GuillaumeApollinaire. He appeared after the production of his "Surrealist drama" "The Sisters of Tiresias" in 1917. A circle of poets with him, led by this time, began to be called surrealists.
For André Breton the meeting with Guillaume Apollinairebecame a landmark. It happened at the front, in the hospital, where the young André, a doctor by training, served as a medic. Apollinaire received a concussion (a fragment of the projectile hit the head), after which he did not recover.
Since 1916 André Breton takes an active part in the work of the poetic avant-garde. He meets Louis Aragon, Philippe Supo, Tristan Tzara, Paul Eluard, reveals the poetry of Lautraemont. In 1919, after the death of Apollinaire, the epatage poets begin to organize themselves around Andre Breton. Also this year, together with Philippe Supo, the work "Magnetic fields", written on the method of "automatic writing", is published.
Since 1924, after the proclamation of the first Manifesto of Surrealism, André Breton becomes the head of the movement. In his house on Fontaine Avenue, the Bureau of Surreal Studies opens, magazines are being published. This was the beginning of a truly international movement, like offices began to open in many cities around the world.
French communist poet André Breton is activeagitated his supporters to join the Communist Party. He believed in the ideals of communism so much that he even received a meeting with Leon Trotsky in Mexico (although at that time he was already expelled from the Communist Party).
A faithful companion and comrade of Apollinaire, LouisAragon became the right hand for André Breton. The French poet, a communist until his last breath, in 1920, Aragon released the first collection of poems "Fireworks", written in the style of surrealism and Dada.
After the poet's entry into the Communist PartyIn 1927, together with Breton, his work is transformed. He in some way becomes the "voice of the party", and in 1931 he is prosecuted for the poem "The Red Front", imbued with a dangerous spirit of incitement.
Peru, Louis Aragon also belongs to the "History of the USSR". He upheld the ideals of communism for the rest of his life, although his recent works returned a little to the traditions of realism, not painted in "red."