The castle is a medieval structure, once served as a fortified dwelling of the feudal lord. Usually this is a large complex, including economic, household and defensive buildings.
In Ukraine, castles began to build, starting from 11century. Originally they were built of wood. Sometimes, fortifications in the form of earthen ramparts were also used. And only in the 13th century stone was used to erect castles. By the beginning of the 18th century, most such fortified structures had lost their significance. Their owners moved to much more comfortable palaces. In the 19th century, the stone of deserted, neglected castles was actively used as a building material.
The most interesting of all surviving such fortified buildings are the following castles of Ukraine:
These are the most beautiful castles in Ukraine, worthy of visiting tourists and the state's attention.
This is perhaps the most famous fortifieda medieval structure in the Ukraine. Built Kamenetz-Podolsky castle was in the XIV century. Lithuanian princes. Since 1434 the complex passed into the possession of the Poles and was actively used as a defensive structure in battles against the Turkish-Tatar troops. Initially, the castle stood right at the entrance to the city. It was built of wood. Stone structures appeared in the XVI century.
In the XIX century. Kamensk-Podilsky Castle lost its military importance, and it opened a museum-reserve. This complex looks like many other castles of Western Ukraine, in full accordance with the modern man's ideas about a fortified medieval fortress, and that is why it is very often used in the filming of historical films. For example, it was here that the films "Taras Bulba" and "The Old Fortress" were shot.
This complex was built by the Lithuanian princeLyubat in the XIV century. on the site of the old wooden fortification, erected in the XIV century. In 2011, Lutsk Castle was recognized as one of the wonders of Ukraine. For all time of its existence this complex has never been taken by Polish troops, nor by the Galician army.
Like all other castles in Ukraine, Lutskyfenced stone wall with towers in the corners, which are viewed arches, once served as entrances and equipped with lift bridges. Later they were laid. On the territory of the complex there is an old princely house.
The construction of this fortified structure wasfinished in 1462 year. Konstantin Ostrozhsky founded the Dubensk Castle. In the XVII century the complex was rebuilt and reconstructed in the then fashionable Renaissance style. On its territory are preserved the ancient palaces of the princes Ostrozhsky and Lubomir.
One of Dublin's attractionsThe fortified complex is a ramified system of underground passages. In our time one of them operates a museum of torture weapons. The festival "Taras Bulba" is annually held in front of the building.
Many castles and fortresses of Ukraine in the past wereresidences of kings, including Oleskiy. Built this fortified complex more than six centuries ago. The first mention of him falls on 1327 year. In this castle, King Jan III Sobieski and Michael Koribut Vishnevetsky were born. In the XIX century, the fortress fell into decay, and during the First World War was almost completely destroyed. Restoration of old ruins was carried out already in our time on the initiative of historian Boris Voznitsky. Now there is a museum-reserve in the castle.
The castle was founded by Polish swordsman K. Vikhrovsky in the year 1630. It represents a quadrangular structure, surrounded by a deep defensive moat. A pentagonal tower with loopholes is built on each corner. During its existence, the Skalat castle has changed its owners many times. Its owners were J. Firley, the princes of Scipio. During the First and Second World Wars this fortified structure was almost completely destroyed. Its reconstruction was carried out quite recently. Like many other castles in Ukraine, Skalatsky is currently a museum complex.
When exactly this ancientfortress, is for certain unknown. According to the scientists, it was erected at the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries. In the middle of the XIII century, old wooden fortifications and buildings on the orders of Prince Galitsky were replaced by stone ones. Virtually all the ancient castles of Ukraine, which have survived to our days, have undergone serious reconstruction in the past. Khotinsky is not an exception in this respect. In the XV century, this fortress was radically rebuilt. Its area was significantly increased by building thick stone walls and towers. The yard was raised almost 10 m.
In 1918 Khotin was captured by the Romanians, and in 1940 he moved to the USSR. In this castle, as in Kamenetz-Podolsky, shooting of historical movies is very often carried out.
This ancient fortress is located near the cityMukachevo. When exactly many interesting medieval castles of Ukraine were built, historians are unfortunately not known. In this regard, the Palanok complex is no exception. Some researchers believe that these defensive fortifications existed as far back as the 9th century. In any case, the first mention of this ancient fortress is in the annals dated to the 11th century.
Palanok Castle lost its military significance to the XIXArt. Subsequently, this structure was used for a long time as a prison for political prisoners. Later, there were military barracks here. Now the fortress of Palanok has been completely restored, and here there is a historical museum open to all visitors.
According to some reports, the construction of thisThe construction lasted more than two centuries (XIII - XIV centuries), and the main fortification it received in the XV century. Locks of Ukraine in the area are both small and large. The fortress of Akkerman is considered to be one of the largest in this country. The length of its walls is about two kilometers, and their height in some places reaches 15 m.
At the moment, the fortress of Akkerman is a historical and cultural reserve. On its territory are often held various kinds of festivals, music and theater, as well as fencing championships.
The construction of this defensive structurewas completed in 1634 at the expense of King Jakub Sobieski. Behind the thick stone walls, this monarch built a two-story Renaissance palace. In terms of equipment is, perhaps, the most interesting in the country's old castle. Ukraine (at that time was part of Poland) with respect to the amenities of residential complexes was not particularly advanced. The rooms of Zolochevsky Castle were heated with fireplaces and stoves. In addition, there was a sewage system, which for medieval Europe in general is considered a great rarity.
After the death of Prince Yakov Zolochivsky Castle onSome time passed into the possession of the governor Tarle. Later, the famous princes of the Radziwill became its owners. In the second half of the 18th century, the castle that had lost its military significance began to gradually deteriorate.
In 1801 his restoration was occupied by Count Lukash Kamarnitsky. In 1834, he sold it to the Austrian government. For a while here there were barracks, and later - a hospital. In 1872 Zolochiv fortress was used as a prison. In 1953, the PTU was placed in the castle. Restoration of this structure began only in 1986, after it was transferred to the Lviv Art Gallery.
Some castles and palaces of Ukraine are representedare simply delightful in beauty architectural structures. As an example, we can mention Schönborn, erected in 1890-1895. The founder of it was Bouheim Shenborn. Previously, a wooden hunting lodge was built in the tract of Beregvar, which later became the summer residence of the counts. After a while a magnificent palace grew up here. Surround the castle of Schönborn 19 hectares of territory on which the most beautiful garden-arboretum is broken. To date, this building is used as one of the buildings by the Karpaty sanatorium.
Of course, fortresses and castles are not the onlyan architectural landmark that this country can boast of. No less impressive are the ancient temples of Ukraine. Very beautiful, for example, the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, located in the center of Kiev, founded in 1051. It is widely known all over the world and the Sophia Cathedral - the first large Christian church in Russia, built by the son of Prince Vladimir Yaroslav the Wise in the IX century. Among the most interesting sights of this country are the Dominican Cathedral of Lviv, Svyatogorskaya Uspensky Lavra and many other ancient religious buildings.
The ancient castles and temples of Ukraine are the most valuablearchitectural monuments, great creations of human hands, places with an amazing history and unique beauty - certainly worthy of attention of historians and tourists. In connection with recent events, it is unlikely, of course, too many Russian travelers will decide to go to a neighboring power to inspect its sights. However, let's hope it will not always be so, and our tourists will be able to fully appreciate the beauty and grandeur of these monuments of antiquity.