The living-rooms of Russia, like all trade, haveits remarkable history of origin and development. The earliest form of commodity exchange was "mute trading," the essence of which was that the deal participants did not collide with each other. "Silent trade" is typical for many peoples, most likely for everyone, but there is no historical confirmation of its real existence on the territory of Russia. The first mentions of trade relations in Russia date back to the 8th-9th centuries.
In Novgorod, which took the leading place asthe trade and economic center after the decayed Kiev, on the trading areas there are specialized ranks, for example, rags, fish or furs. In the 12th century, Moscow became the center that gives everything to trade - money, direction, measure and weight. The guest yards do not yet exist, in part their role is played by the churches located right there on the square - their cellars store goods, at the entrance they are weighed. In Moscow of that time there are a lot of trade shops, but they are inferior to the points of sale of European countries in all respects. Their small size is directly related to duties and taxes. The most violent trade in Moscow in the 14th-15th centuries was conducted near the Moskvoretsky Bridge. The territory was very busy - there were the Lower, Middle, Upper ranks and a lot of those small shops.
Moscow burned repeatedly, and after anotherfire in 1493 merchants are evicted from the Kremlin and give them the territory of the future Red Square. Here on the Ilyinskiy krestets (at the crossroads of shopping streets commodity exchange was particularly active) at the beginning of the 16th century and the first wooden wooden parlor in Russia was erected.
Thus, in the large shopping centers of Russia (Moscow,Novgorod, Arkhangelsk, Tula) there have long existed Dutch and German trading courts, Armenian and Jewish, "Anglic" and Greek. It was such a kind of fortified areas - the territory was surrounded by a strong fence, there were necessarily observation towers, because there were many goods, they needed to be guarded. In the territories of the households, there was a system of duties and taxes, on which, in fact, they were improved and expanded.
For the people who accompanied the goods,premises - merchant's huts, payment for accommodation in which had a differentiated approach - the service and the cottage. These shopping centers were built according to the same principle: everything needed for the wholesale trade in large lots had to be concentrated here.
They were covered with a single warehouse gallerypremises, and they were built mostly along the perimeter of the square, representing arcades or, more rarely, colonnades (Kostroma courtyard). Most often, galleries that unite benches and barns were erected in two floors. There were standards of construction. For example, the size of the bench reached two fathoms in length, half a shelf, of course, was half as large. There were, however, deviations from the established sizes - this was explained by the specificity of certain deliveries. Tare in warehouses has retained its function to this day - it was boxes and "big boxes" or "porters". Goods such as boots, stored on the bars and poles. Sometimes one storage room was divided by several merchants, and sometimes the entire guest yard was given away. Moscow, Veliky Novgorod and Tula know such examples.
The janitors followed not only the cleanliness and order- they charged a fee for the operation of barns (granary), whole accommodation (gambling) and income taxes. There were other types of duties - it was possible to take out certain types of fees or, when trading with a sledge or a ship's side, pay a "turnaround fee".
For foreigners, there were special rulestrade. So, back in the 15th century in Veliky Novgorod, German merchants were allowed only twice a year to import their goods for a strictly defined period. Even then the princes stood guard over the interests of local producers. On the territories of foreign trading yards, as well as embassies, there were laws of their own, and the prince of Novgorod had no right to interfere. But (presumably) local merchants and nobles had to somehow get acquainted with the goods, especially with their new modifications, the guest yard should have been interested in this. Exhibitions or some samples would have to exist on its territory, based on which subsequent transactions could be made.
About this institution there are legends, raptures andPositive feedback can be heard quite often. In the country over the past few years there has been a construction boom. Now a lot of original, non-typical buildings for various purposes are being built. But the modern guest yard in Tula was able to stand out against this background. As in ancient times, shopping areas were the focus of city life, a place where it was possible to satisfy their cultural and everyday needs, where all the townspeople sought, and now the city authorities have managed to build a center that can interest Tulchans, make them leave the walls of their homes and visit for some reason "Gostiny Dvor". Tula for two years, as a grand opening celebration of the grandiose shopping and entertainment complex, which is, in fact, a city with its structure. In addition to 150 shops, a 6-hall cinema, numerous cafes and restaurants, gyms, fitness centers, beauty salons, there are facilities for registering marriages with subsequent weddings. Absolutely everything a modern person needs can be provided by the Tula Gostiny Dvor. Exhibitions held in all similar centers are arranged in a beautiful exhibition hall.
Of course, even judging by the name, special wordsdeserves the "Great Guest Court", a monument of history and architecture of Russia of the XVIII century, which is under the protection of UNESCO. Conceived under Elizaveta Petrovna, it was erected according to the Rastrelli project by a decree from 1758 on the "sacrum" of Nevsky Prospekt and Sadovaya Street.
The construction was carried out under the projectJean-Baptiste Wallen-Delamota. It lasted from 1761 to 1785. Since its inception, the Great Guest Court has played an indispensable role in ensuring the life of St. Petersburg. To him, as the most significant object for the Northern capital, the first was gas lighting. For all the years of its existence, it was repeatedly restored, and the best artists, restorers and architects of both tsarist and soviet Russia were involved in repairs and restoration. In 1886-1887, N.L. Benoit restored the Gostiny Dvor.
Petersburg was particularly proud and protected this building.During the siege he was guarded along with other cult buildings of the Northern capital. In 1945-1948 Gostiny Dvor was restored and recognized as a monument of architecture. After the next major overhaul, held in 1955-1967, 167 individual shops that existed on its endless squares were combined into the central department store of the city called "Gostiny Dvor". With all the repairs, this building was decorated - then magnificently decorated the central entrance, then added new stained-glass windows and fountains. Since 1994 the department store has become a joint stock company, and the building itself belongs to the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation.
Petersburgers are very fond of and proud of their"The hotel." Today, not only all kinds of shopping centers are located on its territory, which are visited daily by up to 300,000 buyers from all over the world, but also by the Haute Couture House, and beautiful halls for exhibiting various exhibits. The exhibition in the Gostiny Dvor today sounds like something self-evident - well, where, how not there?