Belgrade Fortress (Belgrade) was founded yetin the first century of our era. It is with her that the history of the Serbian capital begins. Over the centuries, many rulers owned a fortress, and each of them left its mark here.
In the Serbian capital of Belgrade, in the place where the riverSava flows into the Danube, a defensive fortress is located. It is located on the Shumadiy Range, 125.5 meters high above sea level. In ancient times, the Belgrade fortress was of utmost strategic importance, being at the intersection of the roads that connected Tsargrad with the interior of the European continent.
Defensive walls began to build in the I century of our era. The whole territory is divided into the Lower and Upper Town, next to Kalemegdan Park.
Celtic tribes, settling on theseterritories, built the city of Singidunum in two kilometers from the fortress. In the first century AD, the Romans occupied it. On the site of the fortress (in the Upper Town) they built a 5,600-meter high kastrum. Over time, around the Roman military camp began to build houses and neighborhoods, turning it into a settlement.
After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city departsByzantium, in 535 the Emperor Justinian built a rampart around him. In the VIII century, Serbs come here. The fortified walls of limestone inspired them to call the settlement a White City.
In the 9th-10th centuries the Belgrade fortress belonged toBulgarians, then Byzantium in the X-XII centuries, in the XIV it became Hungarian. Under despot (title given by the Byzantine emperor) Stefan Lazarevich, the fortified city actively developed. The palace in the Upper Town was rebuilt into a fortified castle, there were new towers, double walls and ditches around, a drawbridge.
In the 15th century, Turks were captured by the Turks. The hill on which the fortress stands was called the Hill of Reflections, and the territory adjacent to it Kalemegdan. A reminder of Turkish domination on these lands is the fountain of Mehmed Pasha Skolovich and the grave of Damad Ali Pasha. For a long time the fortress passed to the Austrians, then back to the Turks. And each time it was slightly rebuilt or supplemented.
In 1807, the Belgrade Fortress passed toSerb rebels. She suffered badly in the war years, many parts were destroyed. In 1946, the state took the historical structure under its protection.
The outer Istanbul gates are the main ones. They lead directly to the Upper Town. In total there are 13 gates, each have the name: Vidin, Stefana Lazarevich, Dark, Prison, etc. Near the Senate one can see an old nuclear cannon.
Most of the survivingThe defensive walls date back to the 18th century, for example, bastions in the western part of the fortress. The Ruzyca church is considered to be the oldest in Belgrade. It was built in the XIII century, but it was destroyed in the course of battles, so the building that we can see now is a building built in the XIX century. In the past, the church for some time served as a powder storehouse.
The Clock Tower, like the other Austrian onesfortifications, executed in the Baroque style. It was built in the XIX century. Preserved and the earlier towers: Nebojsa, Yakšić, Despot, Mlínarica. In the Upper Town are the ruins of Roman kastrum, the palace of the despot. In Nizhny Novgorod there are ruins of the Metropolitan Palace and powder storage.
On the inside of the fortress isMilitary Museum, National Observatory, Museum of Natural History. On the communist and military past of the object is the grave of heroes and the bronze monument to the Winner, the bunker of Joseph Broz Tito, the Artillery Square with exhibits of military equipment exhibited.
It used to be a field at the foot of the fortress, nowis one of the most beautiful parks in the city. It was founded in the late XIX century. In Kalemegdan there is a lot of greenery, more than 3,000 trees were planted here. In the park there is a music pavilion, a large staircase, an art gallery.
There are many monuments and statues here. You can see the sculpture of the Genius of Death, Tired Fighter, Partizan with a child. Many monuments are dedicated to famous people who played an important role in the history of the city and the country. Among them, a monument to Mark Milyanov, Brank Radichevich, writer Ivan Goran Kovacic.
On the territory of Kalemegdan there is a largeThe zoo, occupying about 7 hectares. Its inhabitants are the elephant, lions, tigers, jaguars, giraffe and the oldest alligator in the world. The main zest of the zoo is albinos. Where else can you see a white lion, a kangaroo and a wolf?
The fortress is in the center of the city, opposite the Ratny Island in Belgrade. Not far from the fortress there is the Bayrakli Mosque and the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael.
A huge territory is occupied by allhistorical and architectural complex "Belgrade Fortress". The address of his directory is assigned to Terzia Street, 3. The complex itself is located a little further. It is bounded by the streets of Paris, Tadeusz Kosciucka and Boulevard Boevic's vaults.
Many Belgrade fortresses are interested in the Thuists. How to get here? You can get to the strongest through the park Kalemegdan. Buses No. 26, 24, 79 and trams No. 2, 5, 11, 10, 13 regularly go to it. You need to leave at the Kalemegdan 2 stop.
The complex is open for visits daily. In summer, it works from 11 to 19 hours, in the winter - from 10 to 17 hours.
Entrance to the territory is free, and for the entrance to separate premises have to pay. Prices are as follows: