Medieval castles are that part of history,which always attracts the curious views of travelers. Perhaps this is due to the aura of romance and codes of honor that were inherent in the nobility of the Middle Ages. No wonder still in the process the expression "faithful knight", which is used when talking about a man who is truly in love.
Today, about those times and actions of people who created history, remind only majestic structures in different countries. The castle of Palanok (Mukachevo) is one of them.
Behind the Carpathian Mountains for many centuries the people were formed so unique and original that their courage, patriotism and devotion to their faith became legendary.
The history of Transcarpathia is forever associated with the Slavs,which appeared here and began to master these lands in another thousand hectares. e. As archaeological excavations show, they were from Volyn and Prykarpattya. Genetic spiritual connection, laid down even during the formation of Kievan Rus and its emergence as a great state, was able to protect the people of Transcarpathia from assimilation with alien cultures, under the influence of which it was for a long time.
Only 3 centuries - from 9 to 11 in. - the Slav princes ruled here and Orthodoxy reigned, but from the 11th to the 13th centuries these lands became part of the kingdom of Great Hungary. Later, until the middle of the 20th century, Transcarpathia was a small change in many civil strife and passed from one dynasty to another. From the Hungarian to the Galicia-Volyn principality, then to the Turks and the Habsburgs, the next masters were Austria-Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and only after the Second World War did they again belong to Ukraine, from which they were torn off for 10 centuries.
Today, the ancient castle of Palanok (Mukachevo) is visited by tourists from all over the world to get acquainted with the history of the devotion of one people to its origins, culture and faith.
The exact date of the origin of the city is unknown, butThe first written mention of him occurs in the annals for 896 year. The location of Mukacheve is so successful that the Slavs who founded the settlement were not the first to understand and apply it.
Settlement on the site of the present city waswas formed 40,000 years ago, during the Paleolithic period. Time passed, some tribes disappeared, their parking lots fell asleep on the ground, but the following appeared on the same spot. For example, here you can find evidence of life of people of the late Paleolithic (3000 years ago), bronze (2000 BC).
Equally diverse and represented hereculture. On Mount Tupce, a Thracian fortress was discovered (10th century BC), and nearby - the Celtic oppidum, and archaeologists could even trace when the Celts were evicted tribes of carp, after which the mountains were named.
No matter how the tribes replace each other before ourera, but it is precisely known that Transcarpathia developed and grew with the Slavic tribes, who in the 700 years of the first millennium formed the great people of Rusich, ruled by the prince of Kiev. This post, by the way, was elected, and people as put prince on the kingdom, so he could take it off.
The first wooden defensive structureappeared here on Mount Zamkova in 1086. The real stone Mukachevo castle appeared only in the 14th century. It began its construction at the behest of Charles Robert - Hungarian nobleman, in whose possession was then the fortress.
Today, Mukachevo (Ukraine, Transcarpathian region) is a regional center located half a hundred kilometers from Hungary and Slovakia and 100 kilometers from the border with Romania and Poland.
As it usually happens, the exact date of constructionthere is no castle, but in the annals it is said that in 1086 he not only repulsed the attack, but remained the only unconquered army of the Polovtsian Khan of Kutesk, the citadel. In the charter for 1321 it is mentioned that in the fortress there is a commandant named Tomash.
The following data for 1352 speak of anotherCommandant - Dezhe, who defeated the army of Khan Atlamos. During the 13th and 14th centuries the fortress belonged to the Ugric royal dynasty of Arpadoviches and Anjou, but the real flowering and rebuilding of the fortress into a surprisingly beautiful and impregnable castle begins from the moment when it has its first owner.
Mukachevo Castle was awarded for services to FedorKoryatovich - a native of the ancient Lithuanian princely family Gediminas. He lost his possessions during the war, and Sigismund 1 in 1396 gave him a fortress in lifelong possession.
At that time the structure was a squarewalls with towers and a moat in front of them. Fedor Koryatovych built a castle on the top of the mountain, which became the residence of his family. On the sides of the old wall were built powerful towers up to 9 m in diameter with a wall thickness of 2.5 meters.
In 1401 the castle was surrounded by a deep dry ditch,above which towered ten-meter defensive walls. Inside the castle a well was dug so that its inhabitants could survive any siege and not suffer from thirst. The castle of Palanok (Mukacheve) is perfectly preserved to the present day. He was not affected by the passage from one royal dynasty to another, neither the First nor the Second World War. In Soviet times there was an agricultural technical school, thanks to which its halls and walls were maintained in good condition, and in 1960 a museum was opened in it.
This prominent politician of his time anda native of an ancient noble family possessed a remarkable intellect and a strong character, but some historians put the existence of his personality in doubt, since the originals of credentials were never found.
Several copies of the surviving documents saythat the castle of Palanok (Mukachevo) was indeed transferred to the lifelong use of Fedor Koryatovich together with the city and the adjoining lands up to Khust. Whatever it was, but it was with his light hand on the Castle Hill that a grandiose structure appeared, for which thousands of people now come to Transcarpathia.
In addition to the castle, Fyodor Koryatovich built a libraryand erected a monastery in which he was buried after death. Thanks to him, the city of Mukachevo became the cultural and religious center of the region. Today the grave of the nobles can not be found, but it is known that in the 19th century, when a stone church was placed instead of a wooden church, its tombstone was intact. Where it happened later is unknown.
Now a monument resembles a monument in the courtyard of the castle, which already has its own legend.
For the time that Fyodor Koryatovych held in Transcarpathia, the Mukachevo Castle (address: 5 Kurutsev Lane) has acquired a view that we are observing today.
The noblemen were built:
For the construction of France came her formerMinister of Defense and part-time expert of fortifications Sebastian de Vauban, who developed the defensive system of the castle, which made it impregnable. In some parts of the fortress, the walls reached 18 meters in thickness, which made it easy to withstand the bombardment of existing guns at that time.
In general, he had 4 terraces, whichwere distributed on the Antechamber, Lower, Middle and Upper Castle. Each level was higher than the other and represented an independent defensive unit, so if the lower tiers fell, the defenders could take shelter at the top and survive the siege.
In the 14th century, as now, to get to Palanok Castle(Mukachevo, the regime of work - from 9.00 to 18.00, the day off - Mon.) could only be on a wooden bridge over a ditch, only at that time it was filled with water and a palisade - a palanquette, thanks to which it received its name.
In the first large courtyard there were barracks. Moreover, they also had tiers - the higher they were, the more reward the military received, who carried service there. One of the most amazing structures of the Upper Castle is a 75-meter well, which struck right in the mountain to the river of Latoritsa. Depending on the level of its waters, the contents of the well were overflowing, then it went far down, and it was necessary to pull the life-giving moisture from the depth. But it saved the inhabitants during the siege of the fortress, one of which lasted more than 3 years.
At one time the castle belonged to the ancientthe Transylvanian family of Rakoczy, descended from Vlad 3 Dracula. Their dynasty rules here more than 100 years. At one time it was they who gave shelter to Transcarpathian Slavs who did not want to accept the culture and religion of the Turkish invaders. Such people were called karutsu, and representatives of the ancient family led them.
Ilona Zrini became a legend during her lifetime. The widow of Ferenc Rákóczi led the castle's defense during the siege by the Habsburg troops and lasted 3 years. She was famous for her extraordinary beauty. There is even a legend that on the eve of another enemy assault, the lady went out to the fortress walls to look at the strength of the army under her walls. At that moment the Austrian general saw it, preparing the fighters for the attack. Struck by the beautiful appearance of a woman, he unrolled the army and said that he was used to fighting the soldiers, but he would not fight with beauty.
If not betrayal of the inner environmentIlona, who poisoned the water in the well, this fortress would never surrender. Today this great woman is reminded of a monument erected in the castle. She stands with her son at the fortress wall, and the young head of the dynasty holds a saber in his hand.
It is a symbol of the fact that he never bowed beforeborn Habsburgs and continued the work of his father and mother. That's how the castle Palanok and his host stand. In Mukachevo, therefore, in the 19th century a monument was erected to a woman who created history and led the revolution. She died in 1703, and her ashes rest in Kosice (Slovakia).
Sights of Ukraine can boast of beauty and antiquity, but perhaps there are nowhere as many legends as in Palanok Castle.
Here, modern superstitions resonate with those who have been for many centuries. For example, digging a well in a rock gave rise to such a story among the humorous Mukachevites.
Dug the peasants well, digging day, two, ten,but there is no water. The prince every day angrily asks: "Where is the water ?!" And each time they answer him: "No" I heard about this devil and decided to earn some money. He came to the prince and said that he would make a bag of gold so that there would always be water in the well. What to do? The prince agreed, the devil spoiled, the men digged, and the water appeared.
The unclean one came for the reward, and the prince hands hima small bag of gold and says that they did not agree on the sizes. It is clear that the long digging and good sense of humor of local residents created history for ages.
Well, today the castle of Palanok in Mukacheve is a legend,for the sake of which people come here who have cherished desires. Who first decided that the monument to Fyodor Koryatovych specially points to the ground with his finger, as if asserting that it was intended to be here, we do not know about that, but today thousands of people grab for him, like a straw.
Interestingly, many of them claim that theirthe desire really took place within a year. Maybe it works faith in a miracle, or simply after a person held on to a noble finger and, closing his eyes, wanted the desired, he finally began to take some steps to implement it.
Whatever it was, but the miracle works.There is a suspicion that the legend was put into practice by the lazy students of the once agricultural machinery in these walls. They held on to their finger, pulled out the only ticket that they knew, and now a million tourist is grabbing for him and something secret whispers.
Since in the early 20th century Transcarpathia belonged to theCzechia, and then Hungary (the flesh until the end of World War II), he remained safe, albeit under alien supervision. In the 1950s a technical school was established here, and its students lived in former barracks.
Only since 1989 in its walls a museum was organized.Today this is another pearl in the necklace of sights of Western Ukraine and Transcarpathia. Therefore, it is not surprising that many tourists who came to these regions are primarily interested in the fortress, which Mr. Mukachevo (Palanok Castle) is so proud of. The price of entry is a little more than 35 rubles. The tour will cost 300 rubles. per person.
Where necessary, restorativework, so a grandiose monument of history and architecture looks the same as in the days of Fedor Koryatovich. It is included in the list of "The most visited sights of Ukraine", and it is quite deserved. Here everything literally breathes history, therefore in the castle there is no off-season.
This is also the most favorite place for newlyweds who arrange wedding photo sessions. They are especially frequent between spring and October.
Today, there are open rooms with an exhibition of paintings andsculptures, on weekends the musicians play, the collection of objects of everyday life and culture of the inhabitants of Transcarpathia is widely represented in the period from 12 to 20 century. In one of the halls of guests waiting for icons of 16-19 centuries. It often hosts concerts and festivals, which the guests of the castle can become members of.
If someone is tired of impressions, you canpleasantly relax and have a snack in the cafe, and to make the colors of the day brighter, you can go down to the dark cellars of the castle, where the tasting rooms are now located, and taste the Chizai brand wine.
In the castle Palanok can do withoutguide, but it will just walk along its silent corridors and halls. It is people who are in love with these walls that enliven them with stories about those who lived here and composed such wonderful legends.
View from the fortress walls - this is another opportunity to enjoy the local beauty, which can not be missed. Very impressive castle looks at night.
Tour in Transcarpathia is a very popular route, as there is everything:
Prices for such tours are quite acceptable,probably, therefore there are year-round excursions and devote travelers to the secrets and legends of the city of Mukacheve and its castle. Each guest of the city necessarily throws a coin to the offended line in the well and makes a wish to return here again. In this occasion, the local people have even an anecdote, and they will tell you with pleasure about it a million times, you just have to ask.