Public service is an activityindividuals, administrative bureaucratic structures, aimed at implementing decisions taken by public authorities. As a rule, civil servants (bureaucrats) are recruited on a competitive basis or appointed by higher-level officials or collegially in accordance with normative and legal documents that are approved by one or another agency.
The State Service of the Russian Federation has the following structure:
- State civil service -bureaucratic apparatus, which takes and realizes in practice the decisions of the structures endowed with power. In the Russian Federation it is divided into civil service in federal ministries, departments, state committees and state companies, and also bureaucratic support of activity in regional and district administrations. In Russia, it is built on the principle of vertical hierarchical subordination, when a higher-ranking official has more powers than a lower-ranking official.
- Military service - public service inArmed Forces of the Russian Federation. It has its own peculiarities: all professional servicemen are considered civil servants. However, among them, it is possible to single out civilian bodies that ensure the vital activity of military units. Another interesting feature is the presence of elements of its own internal law enforcement system (the military prosecutor's office and military courts that are not directly subordinate to the hierarchy of "civil" courts).
- Law enforcement service - activitiesState structures that ensure the preservation of the constitutional order in the country. The public service in this case is carried out through the activities of such institutions as the ministries of the interior, prosecutors, courts and other law enforcement agencies.
The civil service implies the professional activity of managers divided into the following categories:
- Leadership - heads of federalauthorities, state bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation, local administrations. Such positions are appointed either for a certain period, within the framework of which certain powers are exercised by law, or without a certain period in accordance with the internal personnel requirements of an agency.
- Advisors - executive positions in the bodiesstate power at all levels (mostly regional or local). The advisers are appointed for a certain period of time and, as a rule, manage the department (units) of this or that agency or state structure.
- Specialists - public positions, which are necessary for professional support of the activities of state structures, as well as for individual departments and divisions.
- Providing specialists - positions for organizational, technical, information and bureaucratic support of state organizations.