Types of crimes in modern Russian criminal law theory

Classification of the composition of the crime is notonly theoretical importance, but also practical importance. Correct implementation of regulatory requirements is impossible without clarifying the essence of legal categories. The characteristics of criminal acts become more obvious if we consider them groups formed on some basis.

Types of crimes are usually classified for several reasons. These include:

  • the degree and nature of the public danger of the deed committed;
  • its completeness;
  • the design of the objective side;
  • A way to describe the main features of a crime.

Types of crimes
On the first basis, a simple,privileged and qualified staff. These species are distinguished by the presence or absence of factors that "increase" or "reduce" the guilt of the offender. So, the composition of a crime without mitigating and aggravating circumstances is called simple. The presence of both factors is the definition of a qualified "complex" of the object, the subject and the parties of the same name. Privileged composition implies the presence of only aggravating circumstances.

Types of crime

The second basis is the degree of completenesscriminal act. Types of crimes for this reason are delineated directly in the text of the Criminal Code. So, the deed can be finished and unfinished. In the first case, according to the instruction, the actions of the offender contain the entire complex of signs of the offense set forth in the relevant article of the law. In the second case, the act of a person must be characterized by all the features of an attempt or preparation for a criminal act.

An unfinished crime, in turn, can be qualified as preparation for it. Either, depending on the signs present, the deed is recognized as a complete or incomplete attempt.

Properties of felting

The third basis subdivides the types of compoundscrimes depending on the design of one of the components - the objective side. The latter has various characteristics. In this classification, there are formal and material compositions.

The second type takes into account the whole complex of basic featuresof this element: an act and consequences that have the nature of a public danger, as well as a causal relationship between these two components. This composition takes place in the case when the act committed by a person (in itself) is not directly provided for by the Criminal Code. For example, violation of traffic rules is an offense, but not a crime. And the socially dangerous consequences that have resulted from this incident, for example, damage to human health, are already a crime.

Types of crimes classified bythis basis, include cases where only the nature of the act is taken into account, and not the consequences themselves. For example, the dissemination of knowingly false and disgracing person information, regardless of the consequences, qualifies as a criminal act. But in this case we are talking about a formal composition.

The latter can be represented in two forms. Here the types of corpus delicti differ in the degree of completeness. A simple composition presupposes a full realization of criminal intent. In the second case we are talking about preparing for the commission of an act. Such a composition is called truncated.

A way to describe the signs of a criminal actThe basis of the following classification. There are simple and complex compositions. In the first case, the properties of crime are associated with only one object of encroachment. In the second case, for example, it is a question of such an illegal act as robbery. In this situation there are two objects of encroachment, and this composition is called complex.

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