Investigative actions arefixed in the legislation and provided with the possibility of applying measures of state enforcement methods of collecting, recording and verifying evidence. The CPC contains a list of such methods, which is exhaustive. In particular, it fixes investigative actions, which are the source of evidence. These include:
- inspection (housing, premises, vehicles,of an object or thing). Used to detect physical evidence at the scene, the individual characteristics of things, fixing the situation, etc .;
- investigative experiment (necessary in order to reproduce the "picture of what happened", to establish the possibility of committing a crime by a specific person, etc.);
- survey (used to establishthe state in which the person was, for example, drug or alcohol intoxication; also when inflicting bodily injuries is used to determine the severity level, etc.);
- The search (most often used at the place ofresidence, as well as in other premises and legal possessions of the suspect or accused person for the discovery of stolen items and items that are prohibited for free circulation);
- control of negotiations (necessary for fixing preparation for a crime, its suppression, as well as establishing the location of a person in case of his search);
- a seizure (used in the case where it is known,where is the subject to be seized. Investigative actions such as conducting a search and seizure are necessary for the seizure of objects of importance for investigation);
- arrest of correspondence (as a rule, it is used in case of person's search);
- interrogation (one of the main actions thatit is necessary to investigate absolutely any criminal case. Can interrogate a witness, expert, suspect, accused. This is the main source of obtaining the necessary information);
- Identification (or the person who committed the crime,Any object that matters, for example, if it was stolen. For identification, three or more persons or objects are presented. The identifying person (the victim, the witness) must justify what signs he or she recognized as a person or thing);
- confrontation (necessary to eliminatesignificant contradictions in the testimony between the persons questioned earlier. Investigative actions (interrogation, confrontation) are often necessary, since accused persons do not always want to admit their guilt;
- verification of the testimony on the spot (suspect inthe presence of witnesses goes to the scene and tells how he committed the crime, for example, how he entered the house, what the situation in the house, where he found the stolen, etc. This helps to completely restore the whole "chain of events", as well as to exclude the possibility of setting yourself a suspect if he decided to take on someone else's crime;
- expertise (there are many varieties: fingerprint, tracological, handwriting, biological, etc. All of them are called upon to establish certain circumstances);
- exhumation of the corpse (necessary to establish the causes of death).
General rules for the production of investigative actions- the set of norms set forth in the Code of Criminal Procedure and regulating the conditions and procedure for their conduct, as well as the measures to guarantee their production. The main condition, as a rule, is the presence of an excited criminal case. However, this is not necessarily in all cases. For example, to determine the presence of the composition before the case is opened, the scene of the incident can be inspected.
In the legislation there is a notion of "urgentinvestigative actions ". They are carried out by the body of inquiry from the moment of initiation of the case, the preliminary investigation of which is mandatory, within 10 days. Such cases are necessary to secure evidence that may be lost in the future. These include the inspection of the scene, the conduct of examinations, the examination, the examination of witnesses, search, etc.