The birth rate is falling, and the average ageolder people are growing - this is the world average trend. The total number of workers is decreasing, while the number of pensioners is steadily growing. Of course, one can be happy with the increase in life expectancy, because this is an indicator of its high level, but the ratio of people of working age and pensioners creates a high social and pension burden on society and worsens the situation in the economy, exacerbating relations in the social sphere.
Most countries have to solve this problemin several ways, including an increase in the retirement age. The same reforms were announced in recent years in the Republic of Belarus. The retirement age in Belarus rises in stages.
Like most countries that used to bepart of the USSR, Belarus is in a difficult demographic situation. As early as the second half of the twentieth century, the birth rate initially began to slow down, and then completely declined. The collapse of the USSR only worsened the situation. And the efforts of the new state in the person of the Ministry of Labor of the Republic of Belarus did not play a special role. The birth rate has fallen and is still falling, which leads to a decrease in the number of working population. Despite some success, the situation is deteriorating, the number of deaths is still higher than the birth rate.
Retirement age in Belarus at the beginning of 2017. was 60.5 years for men and 55.5 for women. Of the population of a little less than ten million people, pensioners accounted for a quarter. And the ratio of working and elderly people was even worse. According to the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection, there are 61 pensioners per 100 workers in the republic. The Ministry of Labor of the Republic of Bashkortostan and statistics maintain that the trend is such that in the next fifteen years the number of older people in the general composition of society will grow both in absolute and in relative terms.
Ratio between the number of able-bodied peopleage and retirees is getting worse. Working ever less, pensioners more and more. This is a new reality, and both the state and the population are forced to adapt to it.
Legislation of the Republic of Belarus - heritageSoviet era - obviously does not correspond to the modern period. The number of elderly people today is steadily increasing, and the amount of money that the state can allocate to support such segments of the population is decreasing.
The government of the country openly agreed that the ongoing pension reforms are actions that are forced. It is caused by the fact that there is a catastrophically shortage of funds for the maintenance of pensioners.
In recent years, the number of pensionersgrows, it is increasingly necessary to draw finances from pension funds. The government warned that, leaving the old system of labor pension in Belarus in the near future, it will be necessary to increase payments to pension organizations of people of working age and / or reduce the amount of pensions themselves. In fifteen years, pension costs would have risen by about one fifth.
To some extent, the position of the state wascorrect. In addition, one can not ignore the far better conditions of life (than, for example, in the fifties) and the achievements of modern medicine. If in the middle of the twentieth century the state of citizens to retirement was weak, and the death rate high, then by now the situation has changed significantly. The retirement age in Belarus has remained the same, and the number of elderly people who live to the advanced age of 70 or 80 years has increased.
Pressure on the state by pensionstructures is constantly increasing. According to official data, at the beginning of 2017, the pension burdens in the country reach about 9% of GDP. In Belarus, there are 2619.3 thousand pensioners, of whom over half a million, as before, work.
Meanwhile, since the end of the winter of this year,the volume of the subsistence minimum, and as a result the expenses for issuing minimum labor and social pensions also increased. Such a situation could not continue further. To reduce the financial pressure on the pension structure, you need to gradually increase the retirement age.
At one time the Ministry of Labor of the Republic of Belarus expressedThe idea that many countries since the beginning of the twenty-first century in order to reduce the pension pressure on the economy constantly increase the number of years for retirement. Meanwhile, in Belarus, the growth of the retirement age in 2017 will occur for the first time since the country's formation and will give an opportunity to approach the average world level.
In the overwhelming number of states in our timethe age of retirement is 60-65 years, and often it is common for both men and women. In Belarus, men have the right to go on deserved rest five years later than women, whereas men, according to statistics, live less. An increase in the age of retirement in Belarus will occur for both genders.
European countries and the United States of America to2060 plan to raise the retirement age to 70 years, and Germany is going to carry out the relevant reforms in the near future. Today, the highest retirement age in Finland (62-68 years for both men and women), Sweden (61-67 years to date, but the prime minister actively advocates raising the retirement age to 75 years), Poland (65 -67 years), Iceland (67 years), Denmark (65-67), Israel (67 years), Germany (65-67).
Based on the presidential decreeBelarus, during the next six years (from 2017 to 2022) there will be major changes in the pension sector. Annually, starting from January 2017, the age of retirement will increase by six months. By the beginning of 2022 the retirement age will reach 58 years for women and 63 for men. In addition, every year for six months will increase the minimum length of service required to retire by age (in aggregate, it will also increase by five years).
The above decree launched a pension schemereform, which will make it possible to leave expenditure on retirement at the current year level for at least the next 5-8 years. The legislation of the Republic of Belarus will be restructured in such a way that it corresponds to the new realities and promotes the development of the social sphere, as well as reducing the burden on the economy.
So, the age of retirement will beincrease in stages. Every six months, the retirement age will increase by the same six months. Earlier, the government offered another option: an increase in the retirement age for the year annually. In the end, they chose the option with a gradual increase in age.
In the Ministry of Labor and Social Protectionexplain that, in view of recent reforms, men who were born in the first half of 1957, and women in the first half of 1962, will be the first to be transformed by the pension system. Under former laws, they could retire at 60 and 55, respectively, that is, in the first months of 2017. But since the retirement age in Belarus has been increasing by half a year since 2017, the residents of the country whose dates of birth were in the indicated chronological framework, will have to work for another 6 months and will receive a pension already in the second half of 2017.
Reform aimed at increasing the ageretirement, will directly affect in the near future about 100 thousand inhabitants of Belarus, half of whom will be retired later for half a year, half - for a year. In accordance with the decree of the President of Belarus, in the next six years the age will increase by three years, at the achievement of which there is an opportunity to receive labor pensions.
Meanwhile, the International Monetary Fund is one of the mostlargest financial organizations - proposes to raise the retirement age in Belarus and after the reform in 2022. In a recent report of the organization, which was broadcast two weeks ago, it is noted that Belarus first needs to make a mild increase in the retirement age for men and women under 65 . After you need to tie the retirement age to the average life expectancy.
In general, statements made by the IMF indicate that,that the probability of such a scenario is very large. The IMF says that the ratio of pensioners to able-bodied residents will grow and by the middle of the century will reach two thirds of the population will be elderly citizens.
The increase in the number of pensioners will lead toexperts of the IMF, that the amount of payment of pensions in Belarus will almost double by the middle of the century. As a result, the budget deficit will grow about three times, the economy will react negatively to this state of affairs.
Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the RepublicBelarus also predicts an increase in pension expenditures in the country due to the constant aging of the main part of the population, the growth of the number of pensioners. So, according to the experts of the Belarusian Economic Research and Education Center, if in 2013 the allocation of funds to the pension fund has reached about 9% of Belarus' GDP, then by the middle of the century it will already be 20% of GDP. Consequently, if the pension system does not change anything in the future and does not increase the retirement age, considering the reforms carried out as sufficient, the lack of funds of the PF of Belarus, due to the aging of the majority of people, will be guaranteed.
This problem, to a greater or lesser extent,This applies to other countries too, so such changes will affect them. Raising the retirement age in Belarus is only one of the steps. Such a reform has already started in Russia and Ukraine, other post-Soviet countries, and Europe are also in the queue.