In a broad sense, democracy is notjust the organization of political government, but the form of the organization of society with a certain worldview. This form corresponds to their institutions of power. Theoretical justification for a fundamental understanding of this method of government was first laid down by J. J. Russo.
The basis of the values of modern democracyconcentrates in the formula "Any person is born free, all people are equal among themselves in rights". The principles of democracy begin with the main value - freedom. It is regarded as the basis of any society of this type. As the main value of the regime, freedom does not prescribe specific behavior, does not impose the content of people's activities, but opens up opportunities for them to choose them at their discretion.
All rights and freedoms are subdivided into such groups as economic, elementary, civil, cultural, political and social rights.
The principles of democracy are impossible without suchvalues, as a principle of equality of people. This principle is understood not as the identity of all people, but their equality in rights and duties in the Christian sense. Everyone has the right to happiness, freedom, life. This regime seeks to provide people with all opportunities for personal development. Regardless of social, racial, religious or other differences. Protection of the rights of all people is ensured by the law, as well as by the civil society organization itself. The more developed civil society is, the more developed are the principles of democracy in it.
The basic principles of this type of political regimeinclude the principle of pluralism. Since freedom is the main value, society must ensure that its protection is obligatory. Hence the ideological, religious, ideological, economic and political pluralism of the Western regimes. Pluralism is understood as a variety of forms of ownership, ideological trends, public interests, etc. The very concept grew out of the ideology of liberalism.
Relying on all these values,modern principles of democracy imply an obligatory condition of government - by a majority in the protection of minority rights. Given the diversity of opinions, it is rather difficult to make decisions that satisfy all. Therefore, a logical solution to this problem is the adoption of decisions on the principle of the majority. The power is given to a circle of persons for whom the majority of voters vote in elections.
However, these basic principles of democracy are notlead to ignoring the interests of the minority and do not forbid him to defend his positions and convictions. Therefore, the regime recognizes the right of the opposition to exist, as well as the possibility of its coming to power in the next elections. Guarantee of the rights of the opposition is another important rule on which all principles and norms of democracy are based.
The basis of the political structure of the state inin this context is the functioning of some institutions. These include elected officials, honest and free elections, the universal right to claim various positions in the government, freedom of speech, the existence of a large number of sources of information and the freedom of self-organization of citizens.
Understanding and interpreting political democracythere are quite diverse, as evidenced by a large number of theories (existing concepts are divided into collectivistic and representative). For a deep understanding of this concept, it is necessary to consider democracy in the interpretation of various scientific concepts. Based on certain criteria, these theories can be compared, and draw their own conclusions.